cbmc - Bounded Model Checker for C/C++ and Java programs
cbmc [--property property-id] file.c ...
cbmc [--show-properties] file.c ...
cbmc [--all-properties] file.c ...
goto-cc [-I include-path] [-c] file.c [-o
goto-instrument infile outfile
Only the most useful options are listed here; see below for the remainder.
generates traces that demonstrate how an assertion can be violated,
or proves that the assertion cannot be violated within a given number of loop
iterations. CBMC can read C/C++ source-code directly, or a goto-binary
generated by goto-cc. Java programs are given as class or JAR files. Without
any further options, cbmc checks all properties (automatically generated or
user-specified) found in the program. If any of the properties can be
violated, a counterexample is printed and the analysis is aborted. The
analysis can be restricted to a particular property with the --property
option. The verification result for all properties can be obtained by means of
the --all-properties option.
reads source code, and generates a goto-binary. Its command-line
interface is designed to mimic that of gcc
(1). Note in particular that
distinguishes between compiling and linking phases, just as gcc
expects a goto-binary for which linking has been completed.
reads a goto-binary, performs a given program
transformation, and then writes the resulting program as goto-binary on disc.
The usual flow is to (1) translate source into a goto-binary using goto-cc, then
(2) perform instrumentation with goto-instrument, and finally (3) perform the
analysis with cbmc.
- -I path
- Set include path (C/C++)
- -D macro
- Define preprocessor macro (C/C++)
- Stop after preprocessing
- Show symbol table
- Show goto program
by default uses architectural settings that match those of the
is executed on, i.e., the settings below are only needed
when verifying software that is meant to run on a different architecture or
generates a goto-binary for a particular architecture,
i.e., the architecture cannot be changed after the goto-binary is generated.
- --16, --32, --64
- Set width of int
- --LP64, --ILP64, --LLP64, --ILP32, --LP32
- Set width of int, long and pointers
- Allow little-endian word-byte conversions
- Allow big-endian word-byte conversions
- Make "char" unsigned by default
- Set target architecture
- Set target operating system
- Don't set up an architecture
- Disable built-in abstract C library
- --round-to-nearest, --round-to-plus-inf,
- IEEE floating point rounding mode to use when the program
begins (default is round to nearest). The program under verification can
override this setting, e.g., with fesetround(3).
can generate assertions that catch
specific common errors, as listed below.
- Enable array bounds checks
- Enable division by zero checks
- Enable pointer checks
- Enable arithmetic over- and underflow checks for signed
- Enable arithmetic over- and underflow checks for unsigned
- Check floating-point computations for NaN
- Ignore user-provided assertions
- Ignore user-provided assumptions
- --error-label label
- Check that the given label is unreachable
supports further, more complex, program transformations.
- Makes reads from volatile variables non-deterministic
- --isr function
- Instruments an interrupt service routine with the given
- Instruments memory-mapped I/O
- Variables with static lifetime are initialized
- Output ANSI-C source code instead of a goto binary.
- Report status of all properties
- Only show properties
- Show the loops in the program
- Check which assertions are reachable
- --function name
- Set main function name
- --property id
- Only check specific property with given identifier
- Only show program expression
- --depth nr
- Limit search depth
- --unwind nr
- Unwind loops nr times
- --unwindset L:B,...
- Unwind loop L with a bound of B (use --show-loops to get
the loop IDs)
- Show the verification conditions
- Remove assignments unrelated to property
- Do not generate unwinding assertions
- Do not simplify identifiers
- Generate CNF in DIMACS format for use by external SAT
- Beautify the counterexample (greedy heuristic)
- Output subgoals in SMT2 syntax
- Use Boolector (experimental)
- Use MathSAT (experimental)
- Use CVC3 (experimental)
- Use Yices (experimental)
- Use Z3 (experimental)
- Use refinement procedure (experimental)
- --outfile filename
- Output formula to given file
- Never turn arrays into uninterpreted functions
- Always turn arrays into uninterpreted functions
All tools honor the TMPDIR environment variable when generating temporary files
and directories. Furthermore note that the preprocessor used by CBMC will use
environment variables to locate header files. GOTO-CC aims to accept all
environment variables that GCC does.
2001-2016, Daniel Kroening, Edmund Clarke