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Firejail - Linux namespaces sandbox program

FIREJAIL(1) firejail man page FIREJAIL(1)

NAME

Firejail - Linux namespaces sandbox program

SYNOPSIS

Start a sandbox:
firejail [OPTIONS] [program and arguments]
File transfer from an existing sandbox
firejail {--ls | --get | --put} dir_or_filename
Network traffic shaping for an existing sandbox:
firejail --bandwidth={name|pid} bandwidth-command
Monitoring:
firejail {--list | --netstats | --top | --tree}
Miscellaneous:
firejail {-? | --debug-caps | --debug-errnos | --debug-syscalls | --debug-protocols | --help | --version}

DESCRIPTION

Firejail is a SUID sandbox program that reduces the risk of security breaches by restricting the running environment of untrusted applications using Linux namespaces, seccomp-bpf and Linux capabilities. It allows a process and all its descendants to have their own private view of the globally shared kernel resources, such as the network stack, process table, mount table. Firejail can work in a SELinux or AppArmor environment, and it is integrated with Linux Control Groups.
Written in C with virtually no dependencies, the software runs on any Linux computer with a 3.x kernel version or newer. It can sandbox any type of processes: servers, graphical applications, and even user login sessions.
Firejail allows the user to manage application security using security profiles. Each profile defines a set of permissions for a specific application or group of applications. The software includes security profiles for a number of more common Linux programs, such as Mozilla Firefox, Chromium, VLC, Transmission etc.
 

USAGE

Without any options, the sandbox consists of a filesystem build in a new mount namespace, and new PID and UTS namespaces. IPC, network and user namespaces can be added using the command line options. The default Firejail filesystem is based on the host filesystem with the main system directories mounted read-only. These directories are /etc, /var, /usr, /bin, /sbin, /lib, /lib32, /libx32 and /lib64. Only /home and /tmp are writable.
As it starts up, Firejail tries to find a security profile based on the name of the application. If an appropriate profile is not found, Firejail will use a default profile. The default profile is quite restrictive. In case the application doesn't work, use --noprofile option to disable it. For more information, please see SECURITY PROFILES section below.
If a program argument is not specified, Firejail starts /bin/bash shell. Examples:
$ firejail [OPTIONS] # starting a /bin/bash shell
$ firejail [OPTIONS] firefox # starting Mozilla Firefox
# sudo firejail [OPTIONS] /etc/init.d/nginx start
 

OPTIONS

--
Signal the end of options and disables further option processing.
--allow-debuggers
Allow tools such as strace and gdb inside the sandbox by whitelisting system calls ptrace and process_vm_readv. This option is only available when running on Linux kernels 4.8 or newer - a kernel bug in ptrace system call allows a full bypass of the seccomp filter.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --allow-debuggers --profile=/etc/firejail/firefox.profile strace -f firefox
--allow-private-blacklist
Allow blacklisting files in private home directory. By default these blacklists are disabled.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --allow-private-blacklist --private=~/priv-dir --blacklist=~/.mozilla
--allusers
All directories under /home are visible inside the sandbox. By default, only current user home directory is visible.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --allusers
--apparmor
Enable AppArmor confinement. For more information, please see APPARMOR section below.
--appimage
Sandbox an AppImage (http://appimage.org/) application.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --appimage krita-3.0-x86_64.appimage
 
$ firejail --appimage --private krita-3.0-x86_64.appimage
 
$ firejail --appimage --net=none --x11 krita-3.0-x86_64.appimage
--audit
Audit the sandbox, see AUDIT section for more details.
--audit=test-program
Audit the sandbox, see AUDIT section for more details.
--bandwidth=name|pid
Set bandwidth limits for the sandbox identified by name or PID, see TRAFFIC SHAPING section for more details.
--bind=filename1,filename2
Mount-bind filename1 on top of filename2. This option is only available when running as root.
 
 
 
Example:
 
# firejail --bind=/config/etc/passwd,/etc/passwd
--blacklist=dirname_or_filename
Blacklist directory or file.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --blacklist=/sbin --blacklist=/usr/sbin
 
$ firejail --blacklist=~/.mozilla
 
$ firejail "--blacklist=/home/username/My Virtual Machines"
 
$ firejail --blacklist=/home/username/My\ Virtual\ Machines
-c
Execute command and exit.
--caps
Linux capabilities is a kernel feature designed to split up the root privilege into a set of distinct privileges. These privileges can be enabled or disabled independently, thus restricting what a process running as root can do in the system.
 
By default root programs run with all capabilities enabled. --caps option disables the following capabilities: CAP_SYS_MODULE, CAP_SYS_RAWIO, CAP_SYS_BOOT, CAP_SYS_NICE, CAP_SYS_TTY_CONFIG, CAP_SYSLOG, CAP_MKNOD, CAP_SYS_ADMIN. The filter is applied to all processes started in the sandbox.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ sudo firejail --caps /etc/init.d/nginx start
 
--caps.drop=all
Drop all capabilities for the processes running in the sandbox. This option is recommended for running GUI programs or any other program that doesn't require root privileges. It is a must-have option for sandboxing untrusted programs installed from unofficial sources - such as games, Java programs, etc.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --caps.drop=all warzone2100
 
--caps.drop=capability,capability,capability
Define a custom blacklist Linux capabilities filter.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --caps.drop=net_broadcast,net_admin,net_raw
 
--caps.keep=capability,capability,capability
Define a custom whitelist Linux capabilities filter.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ sudo firejail --caps.keep=chown,net_bind_service,setgid,\ setuid /etc/init.d/nginx start
 
--caps.print=name|pid
Print the caps filter for the sandbox identified by name or by PID.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
 
$ firejail --caps.print=mygame
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --list
 
3272:netblue:firejail --private firefox
 
$ firejail --caps.print=3272
 
--cgroup=tasks-file
Place the sandbox in the specified control group. tasks-file is the full path of cgroup tasks file.
 
 
 
Example:
 
# firejail --cgroup=/sys/fs/cgroup/g1/tasks
 
--chroot=dirname
Chroot the sandbox into a root filesystem. Unlike the regular filesystem container, the system directories are mounted read-write. If the sandbox is started as a regular user, default seccomp and capabilities filters are enabled. This option is not available on Grsecurity systems.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --chroot=/media/ubuntu warzone2100
 
--cpu=cpu-number,cpu-number,cpu-number
Set CPU affinity.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --cpu=0,1 handbrake
 
--cpu.print=name|pid
Print the CPU cores in use by the sandbox identified by name or by PID.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
 
$ firejail --cpu.print=mygame
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --list
 
3272:netblue:firejail --private firefox
 
$ firejail --cpu.print=3272
 
--csh
Use /bin/csh as default user shell.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --csh
--debug
Print debug messages.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --debug firefox
 
--debug-blacklists
Debug blacklisting.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --debug-blacklists firefox
 
--debug-caps
Print all recognized capabilities in the current Firejail software build and exit.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --debug-caps
--debug-check-filename
Debug filename checking.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --debug-check-filename firefox
 
--debug-errnos
Print all recognized error numbers in the current Firejail software build and exit.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --debug-errnos
--debug-protocols
Print all recognized protocols in the current Firejail software build and exit.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --debug-protocols
--debug-syscalls
Print all recognized system calls in the current Firejail software build and exit.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --debug-syscalls
--debug-whitelists
Debug whitelisting.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --debug-whitelists firefox
 
--defaultgw=address
Use this address as default gateway in the new network namespace.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --net=eth0 --defaultgw=10.10.20.1 firefox
 
--disable-mnt
Disable /mnt, /media, /run/mount and /run/media access.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --disable-mnt firefox
 
--dns=address
Set a DNS server for the sandbox. Up to three DNS servers can be defined. Use this option if you don't trust the DNS setup on your network.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --dns=8.8.8.8 --dns=8.8.4.4 firefox
 
--dns.print=name|pid
Print DNS configuration for a sandbox identified by name or by PID.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
 
$ firejail --dns.print=mygame
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --list
 
3272:netblue:firejail --private firefox
 
$ firejail --dns.print=3272
 
--env=name=value
Set environment variable in the new sandbox.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --env=LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/opt/test/lib
 
--force
By default, if Firejail is started in an existing sandbox, it will run the program in a bash shell. This option disables this behavior, and attempts to start Firejail in the existing sandbox. There could be lots of reasons for it to fail, for example if the existing sandbox disables admin capabilities, SUID binaries, or if it runs seccomp.
 
--fs.print=name|print
Print the filesystem log for the sandbox identified by name or by PID.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
 
$ firejail --fs.print=mygame
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --list
 
3272:netblue:firejail --private firefox
 
$ firejail --fs.print=3272
 
--get=name|pid filename
Get a file from sandbox container, see FILE TRANSFER section for more details.
 
 
--git-install
Download, compile and install mainline git version of Firejail from the official repository on GitHub. The software is installed in /usr/local/bin, and takes precedence over the (old) version installed in /usr/bin. If for any reason the new version doesn't work, the user can uninstall it using --git-uninstall command and revert to the old version.
 
 
 
Prerequisites: git and compile support are required for this command to work. On Debian/Ubuntu systems this support is installed using "sudo apt-get install build-essential git".
 
 
 
Example:
 
 
 
$ firejail --git-install
 
--git-uninstall
Remove the Firejail version previously installed in /usr/local/bin using --git-install command.
 
 
 
Example:
 
 
 
$ firejail --git-uninstall
 
-?, --help
Print options end exit.
 
 
--hostname=name
Set sandbox hostname.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --hostname=officepc firefox
 
--hosts-file=file
Use file as /etc/hosts.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --hosts-file=~/myhosts firefox
 
--ignore=command
Ignore command in profile file.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --ignore=shell --ignore=seccomp firefox
 
--interface=interface
Move interface in a new network namespace. Up to four --interface options can be specified. Note: wlan devices are not supported for this option.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --interface=eth1 --interface=eth0.vlan100
 
--ip=address
Assign IP addresses to the last network interface defined by a --net option. A default gateway is assigned by default.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --net=eth0 --ip=10.10.20.56 firefox
 
--ip=none
No IP address and no default gateway are configured for the last interface defined by a --net option. Use this option in case you intend to start an external DHCP client in the sandbox.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --net=eth0 --ip=none
 
 
 
If the corresponding interface doesn't have an IP address configured, this option is enabled by default.
 
--ip6=address
Assign IPv6 addresses to the last network interface defined by a --net option.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --net=eth0 --ip6=2001:0db8:0:f101::1/64 firefox
 
Note: you don't need this option if you obtain your ip6 address from router via SLAAC (your ip6 address and default route will be configured by kernel automatically).
 
--iprange=address,address
Assign an IP address in the provided range to the last network interface defined by a --net option. A default gateway is assigned by default.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --net=eth0 --iprange=192.168.1.100,192.168.1.150
 
--ipc-namespace
Enable a new IPC namespace if the sandbox was started as a regular user. IPC namespace is enabled by default for sandboxes started as root.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --ipc-namespace firefox
--join=name|pid
Join the sandbox identified by name or by PID. By default a /bin/bash shell is started after joining the sandbox. If a program is specified, the program is run in the sandbox. If --join command is issued as a regular user, all security filters are configured for the new process the same they are configured in the sandbox. If --join command is issued as root, the security filters, cgroups and cpus configurations are not applied to the process joining the sandbox.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
 
$ firejail --join=mygame
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --list
 
3272:netblue:firejail --private firefox
 
$ firejail --join=3272
 
--join-filesystem=name|pid
Join the mount namespace of the sandbox identified by name or PID. By default a /bin/bash shell is started after joining the sandbox. If a program is specified, the program is run in the sandbox. This command is available only to root user. Security filters, cgroups and cpus configurations are not applied to the process joining the sandbox.
 
--join-network=name|PID
Join the network namespace of the sandbox identified by name. By default a /bin/bash shell is started after joining the sandbox. If a program is specified, the program is run in the sandbox. This command is available only to root user. Security filters, cgroups and cpus configurations are not applied to the process joining the sandbox. Example:
 
 
 
# start firefox
 
$ firejail --net=eth0 --name=browser firefox &
 
 
 
# change netfilter configuration
 
$ sudo firejail --join-network=browser bash -c "cat /etc/firejail/nolocal.net | /sbin/iptables-restore"
 
 
 
# verify netfilter configuration
 
$ sudo firejail --join-network=browser /sbin/iptables -vL
 
 
 
# verify IP addresses
 
$ sudo firejail --join-network=browser ip addr
 
Switching to pid 1932, the first child process inside the sandbox
 
1: lo: <LOOPBACK,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 65536 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default
 

link/loopback 00:00:00:00:00:00 brd 00:00:00:00:00:00
 

inet 127.0.0.1/8 scope host lo
 

valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
 

inet6 ::1/128 scope host
 

valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
 
2: eth0-1931: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc noqueue state UNKNOWN group default
 

link/ether 76:58:14:42:78:e4 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
 

inet 192.168.1.158/24 brd 192.168.1.255 scope global eth0-1931
 

valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
 

inet6 fe80::7458:14ff:fe42:78e4/64 scope link
 

valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
 
--join-or-start=name
Join the sandbox identified by name or start a new one. Same as "firejail --join=name" if sandbox with specified name exists, otherwise same as "firejail --name=name ..."
 
Note that in contrary to other join options there is respective profile option.
 
--ls=name|pid dir_or_filename
List files in sandbox container, see FILE TRANSFER section for more details.
 
--list
List all sandboxes, see MONITORING section for more details.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --list
 
7015:netblue:firejail firefox
 
7056:netblue:firejail --net=eth0 transmission-gtk
 
7064:netblue:firejail --noroot xterm
 
$
--mac=address
Assign MAC addresses to the last network interface defined by a --net option.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --net=eth0 --mac=00:11:22:33:44:55 firefox
 
--machine-id
Spoof id number in /etc/machine-id file - a new random id is generated inside the sandbox.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --machine-id
 
--memory-deny-write-execute
Install a seccomp filter to block attempts to create memory mappings that are both writable and executable, to change mappings to be executable, or to create executable shared memory. The filter examines the arguments of mmap, mmap2, mprotect and shmat system calls and kills the process if necessary.
 
 
 
Note: shmat is not implemented as a system call on some platforms including i386, and it cannot be handled by seccomp-bpf.
 
--mtu=number
Assign a MTU value to the last network interface defined by a --net option.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --net=eth0 --mtu=1492
 
--name=name
Set sandbox name. Several options, such as --join and --shutdown, can use this name to identify a sandbox.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --name=mybrowser firefox
 
--net=bridge_interface
Enable a new network namespace and connect it to this bridge interface. Unless specified with option --ip and --defaultgw, an IP address and a default gateway will be assigned automatically to the sandbox. The IP address is verified using ARP before assignment. The address configured as default gateway is the bridge device IP address. Up to four --net bridge devices can be defined. Mixing bridge and macvlan devices is allowed.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ sudo brctl addbr br0
 
$ sudo ifconfig br0 10.10.20.1/24
 
$ sudo brctl addbr br1
 
$ sudo ifconfig br1 10.10.30.1/24
 
$ firejail --net=br0 --net=br1
 
--net=ethernet_interface
Enable a new network namespace and connect it to this ethernet interface using the standard Linux macvlan driver. Unless specified with option --ip and --defaultgw, an IP address and a default gateway will be assigned automatically to the sandbox. The IP address is verified using ARP before assignment. The address configured as default gateway is the default gateway of the host. Up to four --net devices can be defined. Mixing bridge and macvlan devices is allowed. Note: wlan devices are not supported for this option.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --net=eth0 --ip=192.168.1.80 --dns=8.8.8.8 firefox
 
--net=none
Enable a new, unconnected network namespace. The only interface available in the new namespace is a new loopback interface (lo). Use this option to deny network access to programs that don't really need network access.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --net=none vlc
 
 
 
Note: --net=none can crash the application on some platforms. In these cases, it can be replaced with --protocol=unix.
 
--netns=name
Run the program in a named, persistent network namespace. These can be created and configured using "ip netns".
 
--netfilter
Enable a default client network filter in the new network namespace. New network namespaces are created using --net option. If a new network namespaces is not created, --netfilter option does nothing. The default filter is as follows:
 
 
 
*filter
 
:INPUT DROP [0:0]
 
:FORWARD DROP [0:0]
 
:OUTPUT ACCEPT [0:0]
 
-A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT
 
-A INPUT -m state --state RELATED,ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
 
# allow ping
 
-A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type destination-unreachable -j ACCEPT
 
-A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type time-exceeded -j ACCEPT
 
-A INPUT -p icmp --icmp-type echo-request -j ACCEPT
 
# drop STUN (WebRTC) requests
 
-A OUTPUT -p udp --dport 3478 -j DROP
 
-A OUTPUT -p udp --dport 3479 -j DROP
 
-A OUTPUT -p tcp --dport 3478 -j DROP
 
-A OUTPUT -p tcp --dport 3479 -j DROP
 
COMMIT
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --net=eth0 --netfilter firefox
--netfilter=filename
Enable the network filter specified by filename in the new network namespace. The filter file format is the format of iptables-save and iptable-restore commands. New network namespaces are created using --net option. If a new network namespaces is not created, --netfilter option does nothing.
 
 
 
The following filters are available in /etc/firejail directory:
 
 
 
webserver.net is a webserver filter that allows access only to TCP ports 80 and 443. Example:
 
 
 
$ firejail --netfilter=/etc/firejail/webserver.net --net=eth0 \
 
/etc/init.d/apache2 start
 
 
 
nolocal.net is a client filter that disable access to local network. Example:
 
 
 
$ firejail --netfilter=/etc/firejail/nolocal.net \
 
--net=eth0 firefox
--netfilter6=filename
Enable the IPv6 network filter specified by filename in the new network namespace. The filter file format is the format of ip6tables-save and ip6table-restore commands. New network namespaces are created using --net option. If a new network namespaces is not created, --netfilter6 option does nothing.
--netstats
Monitor network namespace statistics, see MONITORING section for more details.
 
 
 
Example:
 
 
 
$ firejail --netstats
 
PID User RX(KB/s) TX(KB/s) Command
 
1294 netblue 53.355 1.473 firejail --net=eth0 firefox
 
7383 netblue 9.045 0.112 firejail --net=eth0 transmission
 
--nice=value
Set nice value for all processes running inside the sandbox. Only root may specify a negative value.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --nice=2 firefox
 
--no3d
Disable 3D hardware acceleration.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --no3d firefox
 
--noblacklist=dirname_or_filename
Disable blacklist for this directory or file.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail
 
$ nc dict.org 2628
 
bash: /bin/nc: Permission denied
 
$ exit
 
 
 
$ firejail --noblacklist=/bin/nc
 
$ nc dict.org 2628
 
220 pan.alephnull.com dictd 1.12.1/rf on Linux 3.14-1-amd64
 
--nodvd
Disable DVD and audio CD devices.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --nodvd
--noexec=dirname_or_filename
Remount directory or file noexec, nodev and nosuid.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --noexec=/tmp
 
 
 
/etc and /var are noexec by default if the sandbox was started as a regular user. If there are more than one mount operation on the path of the file or directory, noexec should be applied to the last one. Always check if the change took effect inside the sandbox.
 
--nogroups
Disable supplementary groups. Without this option, supplementary groups are enabled for the user starting the sandbox. For root user supplementary groups are always disabled.
 
 
 
Note: By default all regular user groups are removed with the exception of the current user. This can be changed using --allusers command option.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ id
 
uid=1000(netblue) gid=1000(netblue) groups=1000(netblue),24(cdrom),25(floppy),27(sudo),29(audio)
 
$ firejail --nogroups
 
Parent pid 8704, child pid 8705
 
Child process initialized
 
$ id
 
uid=1000(netblue) gid=1000(netblue) groups=1000(netblue)
 
$
 
--noprofile
Do not use a security profile.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail
 
Reading profile /etc/firejail/default.profile
 
Parent pid 8553, child pid 8554
 
Child process initialized
 
[...]
 
 
 
$ firejail --noprofile
 
Parent pid 8553, child pid 8554
 
Child process initialized
 
[...]
 
--noroot
Install a user namespace with a single user - the current user. root user does not exist in the new namespace. This option requires a Linux kernel version 3.8 or newer. The option is not supported for --chroot and --overlay configurations, or for sandboxes started as root.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --noroot
 
Parent pid 8553, child pid 8554
 
Child process initialized
 
$ ping google.com
 
ping: icmp open socket: Operation not permitted
 
$
 
--nonewprivs
Sets the NO_NEW_PRIVS prctl. This ensures that child processes cannot acquire new privileges using execve(2); in particular, this means that calling a suid binary (or one with file capabilities) does not result in an increase of privilege. This option is enabled by default if seccomp filter is activated.
 
--nosound
Disable sound system.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --nosound firefox
 
--notv
Disable DVB (Digital Video Broadcasting) TV devices.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --notv vlc
 
--novideo
Disable video devices.
 
 
--nowhitelist=dirname_or_filename
Disable whitelist for this directory or file.
 
--output=logfile
stdout logging and log rotation. Copy stdout and stderr to logfile, and keep the size of the file under 500KB using log rotation. Five files with prefixes .1 to .5 are used in rotation.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --output=sandboxlog /bin/bash
 
[...]
 
$ ls -l sandboxlog*
 
-rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 333890 Jun 2 07:48 sandboxlog
 
-rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 511488 Jun 2 07:48 sandboxlog.1
 
-rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 511488 Jun 2 07:48 sandboxlog.2
 
-rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 511488 Jun 2 07:48 sandboxlog.3
 
-rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 511488 Jun 2 07:48 sandboxlog.4
 
-rw-r--r-- 1 netblue netblue 511488 Jun 2 07:48 sandboxlog.5
 
--output-stderr=logfile
Similar to --output, but stderr is also stored.
 
--overlay
Mount a filesystem overlay on top of the current filesystem. Unlike the regular filesystem container, the system directories are mounted read-write. All filesystem modifications go into the overlay. The overlay is stored in $HOME/.firejail/<PID> directory.
 
 
 
OverlayFS support is required in Linux kernel for this option to work. OverlayFS was officially introduced in Linux kernel version 3.18. This option is not available on Grsecurity systems.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --overlay firefox
 
--overlay-named=name
Mount a filesystem overlay on top of the current filesystem. Unlike the regular filesystem container, the system directories are mounted read-write. All filesystem modifications go into the overlay. The overlay is stored in $HOME/.firejail/<NAME> directory. The created overlay can be reused between multiple sessions.
 
 
 
OverlayFS support is required in Linux kernel for this option to work. OverlayFS was officially introduced in Linux kernel version 3.18. This option is not available on Grsecurity systems.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --overlay-named=jail1 firefox
 
--overlay-tmpfs
Mount a filesystem overlay on top of the current filesystem. All filesystem modifications are discarded when the sandbox is closed.
 
 
 
OverlayFS support is required in Linux kernel for this option to work. OverlayFS was officially introduced in Linux kernel version 3.18. This option is not available on Grsecurity systems.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --overlay-tmpfs firefox
 
--overlay-clean
Clean all overlays stored in $HOME/.firejail directory.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --overlay-clean
 
--private
Mount new /root and /home/user directories in temporary filesystems. All modifications are discarded when the sandbox is closed.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --private firefox
--private=directory
Use directory as user home.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --private=/home/netblue/firefox-home firefox
 
--private-home=file,directory
Build a new user home in a temporary filesystem, and copy the files and directories in the list in the new home. All modifications are discarded when the sandbox is closed.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --private-home=.mozilla firefox
 
--private-bin=file,file
Build a new /bin in a temporary filesystem, and copy the programs in the list. If no listed file is found, /bin directory will be empty. The same directory is also bind-mounted over /sbin, /usr/bin, /usr/sbin and /usr/local/bin. All modifications are discarded when the sandbox is closed.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --private-bin=bash,sed,ls,cat
 
Parent pid 20841, child pid 20842
 
Child process initialized
 
$ ls /bin
 
bash cat ls sed
 
--private-lib=file,directory
This feature is currently under heavy development. Only amd64 platforms are supported at this moment. The idea is to build a new /lib in a temporary filesystem, with only the library files necessary to run the application. It could be as simple as:
 
 
 
$ firejail --private-lib galculator
 
 
 
but it gets complicated really fast:
 
 
 
$ firejail --private-lib=x86_64-linux-gnu/xed,x86_64-linux-gnu/gdk-pixbuf-2.0,libenchant.so.1,librsvg-2.so.2 xed
 
 
 
The feature is integrated with --private-bin:
 
 
 
$ firejail --private-lib --private-bin=bash,ls,ps
 
$ ls /lib
 
ld-linux-x86-64.so.2 libgpg-error.so.0 libprocps.so.6 libsystemd.so.0
 
libc.so.6 liblz4.so.1 libpthread.so.0 libtinfo.so.5
 
libdl.so.2 liblzma.so.5 librt.so.1 x86_64-linux-gnu
 
libgcrypt.so.20 libpcre.so.3 libselinux.so.1
 
$ ps
 

PID TTY TIME CMD
 

1 pts/0 00:00:00 firejail
 

45 pts/0 00:00:00 bash
 

48 pts/0 00:00:00 ps
 
$
 
 
 
--private-dev
Create a new /dev directory. Only dri, null, full, zero, tty, pts, ptmx, random, snd, urandom, video, log and shm devices are available.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --private-dev
 
Parent pid 9887, child pid 9888
 
Child process initialized
 
$ ls /dev
 
dri full log null ptmx pts random shm snd tty urandom zero
 
$
--private-etc=file,directory
Build a new /etc in a temporary filesystem, and copy the files and directories in the list. If no listed file is found, /etc directory will be empty. All modifications are discarded when the sandbox is closed.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --private-etc=group,hostname,localtime, \
 
nsswitch.conf,passwd,resolv.conf
 
--private-opt=file,directory
Build a new /opt in a temporary filesystem, and copy the files and directories in the list. If no listed file is found, /opt directory will be empty. All modifications are discarded when the sandbox is closed.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --private-opt=firefox /opt/firefox/firefox
 
--private-srv=file,directory
Build a new /srv in a temporary filesystem, and copy the files and directories in the list. If no listed file is found, /srv directory will be empty. All modifications are discarded when the sandbox is closed.
 
 
 
Example:
 
# firejail --private-srv=www /etc/init.d/apache2 start
 
--private-tmp
Mount an empty temporary filesystem on top of /tmp directory whitelisting X11 and PulseAudio sockets.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --private-tmp
 
$ ls -al /tmp
 
drwxrwxrwt 4 nobody nogroup 80 Apr 30 11:46 .
 
drwxr-xr-x 30 nobody nogroup 4096 Apr 26 22:18 ..
 
drwx------ 2 nobody nogroup 4096 Apr 30 10:52 pulse-PKdhtXMmr18n
 
drwxrwxrwt 2 nobody nogroup 4096 Apr 30 10:52 .X11-unix
 
 
 
--profile=filename
Load a custom security profile from filename. For filename use an absolute path or a path relative to the current path. For more information, see SECURITY PROFILES section below.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --profile=myprofile
 
--profile.print=name|pid
Print the name of the profile file for the sandbox identified by name or or PID.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --profile.print=browser
 
/etc/firejail/firefox.profile
 
 
--profile-path=directory
Use this directory to look for profile files. Use an absolute path or a path in the home directory starting with ~/. For more information, see SECURITY PROFILES section below and RELOCATING PROFILE FILES in man 5 firejail-profile.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --profile-path=~/myprofiles
 
$ firejail --profile-path=/home/netblue/myprofiles
 
--protocol=protocol,protocol,protocol
Enable protocol filter. The filter is based on seccomp and checks the first argument to socket system call. Recognized values: unix, inet, inet6, netlink and packet. This option is not supported for i386 architecture.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --protocol=unix,inet,inet6 firefox
--protocol.print=name|pid
Print the protocol filter for the sandbox identified by name or PID.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --name=mybrowser firefox &
 
$ firejail --protocol.print=mybrowser
 
unix,inet,inet6,netlink
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --list
 
3272:netblue:firejail --private firefox
 
$ firejail --protocol.print=3272
 
unix,inet,inet6,netlink
--put=name|pid src-filename dest-filename
Put a file in sandbox container, see FILE TRANSFER section for more details.
--quiet
Turn off Firejail's output.
--read-only=dirname_or_filename
Set directory or file read-only.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --read-only=~/.mozilla firefox
 
 
 
A short note about mixing --whitelist and --read-only options. Whitelisted directories should be made read-only independently. Making a parent directory read-only, will not make the whitelist read-only. Example:
 
 
 
$ firejail --whitelist=~/work --read-only=~ --read-only=~/work
 
--read-write=dirname_or_filename
Set directory or file read-write. Only files or directories belonging to the current user are allowed for this operation. Example:
 
 
 
$ mkdir ~/test
 
$ touch ~/test/a
 
$ firejail --read-only=~/test --read-write=~/test/a
 
 
--rlimit-fsize=number
Set the maximum file size that can be created by a process.
--rlimit-nofile=number
Set the maximum number of files that can be opened by a process.
--rlimit-nproc=number
Set the maximum number of processes that can be created for the real user ID of the calling process.
--rlimit-sigpending=number
Set the maximum number of pending signals for a process.
 
--rmenv=name
Remove environment variable in the new sandbox.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --rmenv=DBUS_SESSION_BUS_ADDRESS
 
--scan
ARP-scan all the networks from inside a network namespace. This makes it possible to detect macvlan kernel device drivers running on the current host.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --net=eth0 --scan
--seccomp
Enable seccomp filter and blacklist the syscalls in the default list (@default). The default list is as follows: mount, umount2, ptrace, kexec_load, kexec_file_load, name_to_handle_at, open_by_handle_at, create_module, init_module, finit_module, delete_module, iopl, ioperm, ioprio_set, swapon, swapoff, syslog, process_vm_readv, process_vm_writev, sysfs,_sysctl, adjtimex, clock_adjtime, lookup_dcookie, perf_event_open, fanotify_init, kcmp, add_key, request_key, keyctl, uselib, acct, modify_ldt, pivot_root, io_setup, io_destroy, io_getevents, io_submit, io_cancel, remap_file_pages, mbind, set_mempolicy, migrate_pages, move_pages, vmsplice, chroot, tuxcall, reboot, mfsservctl, get_kernel_syms, bpf, clock_settime, personality, process_vm_writev, query_module, settimeofday, stime, umount, userfaultfd, ustat, vm86, vm86old, afs_syscall, bdflush, break, ftime, getpmsg, gtty, lock, mpx, pciconfig_iobase, pciconfig_read, pciconfig_write, prof, profil, putpmsg, rtas, s390_runtime_instr, s390_mmio_read, s390_mmio_write, security, setdomainname, sethostname, sgetmask, ssetmask, stty, subpage_prot, switch_endian, ulimit, vhangup and vserver.
 
 
To help creating useful seccomp filters more easily, the following system call groups are defined: @clock, @cpu-emulation, @debug, @default, @default-nodebuggers, @default-keep, @module, @obsolete, @privileged, @raw-io, @reboot, @resources and @swap. In addtion, a system call can be specified by its number instead of name with prefix $, so for example $165 would be equal to mount on i386.
 
 
System architecture is strictly imposed only if flag --seccomp.block-secondary is used. The filter is applied at run time only if the correct architecture was detected. For the case of I386 and AMD64 both 32-bit and 64-bit filters are installed.
 
 
 
Firejail will print seccomp violations to the audit log if the kernel was compiled with audit support (CONFIG_AUDIT flag).
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --seccomp
--seccomp=syscall,@group
Enable seccomp filter, blacklist the default list (@default) and the syscalls or syscall groups specified by the command.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --seccomp=utime,utimensat,utimes firefox
 
$ firejail --seccomp=@clock,mkdir,unlinkat transmission-gtk
 
 
 
Instead of dropping the syscall, a specific error number can be returned using syscall:errorno syntax.
 
 
 
Example: $ firejail --seccomp=unlinkat:ENOENT,utimensat,utimes
 
Parent pid 10662, child pid 10663
 
Child process initialized
 
$ touch testfile
 
$ rm testfile
 
rm: cannot remove `testfile': Operation not permitted
 
 
 
If the blocked system calls would also block Firejail from operating, they are handled by adding a preloaded library which performs seccomp system calls later.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --noprofile --shell=none --seccomp=execve bash
 
Parent pid 32751, child pid 32752
 
Post-exec seccomp protector enabled
 
list in: execve, check list: @default-keep prelist: (null), postlist: execve
 
Child process initialized in 46.44 ms
 
$ ls
 
Bad system call
 
 
--seccomp.block_secondary
Enable seccomp filter and filter system call architectures so that only the native architecture is allowed. For example, on amd64, i386 and x32 system calls are blocked as well as changing the execution domain with personality(2) system call.
 
 
--seccomp.drop=syscall,@group
Enable seccomp filter, and blacklist the syscalls or the syscall groups specified by the command.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --seccomp.drop=utime,utimensat,utimes,@clock
 
 
 
Instead of dropping the syscall, a specific error number can be returned using syscall:errorno syntax.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --seccomp.drop=unlinkat:ENOENT,utimensat,utimes
 
Parent pid 10662, child pid 10663
 
Child process initialized
 
$ touch testfile
 
$ rm testfile
 
rm: cannot remove `testfile': Operation not permitted
 
 
 
 
 
 
--seccomp.keep=syscall,syscall,syscall
Enable seccomp filter, and whitelist the syscalls specified by the command. The system calls needed by Firejail (group @default-keep: prctl, execve) are handled with the preload library.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --shell=none --seccomp.keep=poll,select,[...] transmission-gtk
 
--seccomp.print=name|PID
Print the seccomp filter for the sandbox identified by name or PID.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --name=browser firefox &
 
$ firejail --seccomp.print=browser
 
SECCOMP Filter:
 

VALIDATE_ARCHITECTURE
 

EXAMINE_SYSCALL
 

BLACKLIST 165 mount
 

BLACKLIST 166 umount2
 

BLACKLIST 101 ptrace
 

BLACKLIST 246 kexec_load
 

BLACKLIST 304 open_by_handle_at
 

BLACKLIST 175 init_module
 

BLACKLIST 176 delete_module
 

BLACKLIST 172 iopl
 

BLACKLIST 173 ioperm
 

BLACKLIST 167 swapon
 

BLACKLIST 168 swapoff
 

BLACKLIST 103 syslog
 

BLACKLIST 310 process_vm_readv
 

BLACKLIST 311 process_vm_writev
 

BLACKLIST 133 mknod
 

BLACKLIST 139 sysfs
 

BLACKLIST 156 _sysctl
 

BLACKLIST 159 adjtimex
 

BLACKLIST 305 clock_adjtime
 

BLACKLIST 212 lookup_dcookie
 

BLACKLIST 298 perf_event_open
 

BLACKLIST 300 fanotify_init
 

RETURN_ALLOW
 
$
--shell=none
Run the program directly, without a user shell.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --shell=none script.sh
--shell=program
Set default user shell. Use this shell to run the application using -c shell option. For example "firejail --shell=/bin/dash firefox" will start Mozilla Firefox as "/bin/dash -c firefox". By default Bash shell (/bin/bash) is used. Options such as --zsh and --csh can also set the default shell.
 
 
 
Example: $firejail --shell=/bin/dash script.sh
--shutdown=name|PID
Shutdown the sandbox identified by name or PID.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --name=mygame --caps.drop=all warzone2100 &
 
$ firejail --shutdown=mygame
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --list
 
3272:netblue:firejail --private firefox
 
$ firejail --shutdown=3272
--tmpfs=dirname
Mount a tmpfs filesystem on directory dirname. This option is available only when running the sandbox as root.
 
 
 
Example:
 
# firejail --tmpfs=/var
--top
Monitor the most CPU-intensive sandboxes, see MONITORING section for more details.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --top
--trace
Trace open, access and connect system calls.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --trace wget -q www.debian.org
 
Reading profile /etc/firejail/wget.profile
 
3:wget:fopen64 /etc/wgetrc:0x5c8e8ce6c0
 
3:wget:fopen /etc/hosts:0x5c8e8cfb70
 
3:wget:socket AF_INET SOCK_DGRAM IPPROTO_IP:3
 
3:wget:connect 3 8.8.8.8 port 53:0
 
3:wget:socket AF_INET SOCK_STREAM IPPROTO_IP:3
 
3:wget:connect 3 130.89.148.14 port 80:0
 
3:wget:fopen64 index.html:0x5c8e8d1a60
 
 
 
parent is shutting down, bye...
--tracelog
This option enables auditing blacklisted files and directories. A message is sent to syslog in case the file or the directory is accessed.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --tracelog firefox
 
 
 
Sample messages:
 
$ sudo tail -f /var/log/syslog
 
[...]
 
Dec 3 11:43:25 debian firejail[70]: blacklist violation - sandbox 26370, exe firefox, syscall open64, path /etc/shadow
 
Dec 3 11:46:17 debian firejail[70]: blacklist violation - sandbox 26370, exe firefox, syscall opendir, path /boot
 
[...]
--tree
Print a tree of all sandboxed processes, see MONITORING section for more details.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --tree
 
11903:netblue:firejail iceweasel
 

11904:netblue:iceweasel
 

11957:netblue:/usr/lib/iceweasel/plugin-container
 
11969:netblue:firejail --net=eth0 transmission-gtk
 

11970:netblue:transmission-gtk
 
--version
Print program version and exit.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --version
 
firejail version 0.9.27
 
--veth-name=name
Use this name for the interface connected to the bridge for --net=bridge_interface commands, instead of the default one.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --net=br0 --veth-name=if0
 
--whitelist=dirname_or_filename
Whitelist directory or file. A temporary file system is mounted on the top directory, and the whitelisted files are mount-binded inside. Modifications to whitelisted files are persistent, everything else is discarded when the sandbox is closed. The top directory could be user home, /dev, /media, /mnt, /opt, /srv, /var, and /tmp.
 
 
 
Symbolic link handling: with the exception of user home, both the link and the real file should be in the same top directory. For user home, both the link and the real file should be owned by the user.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --noprofile --whitelist=~/.mozilla
 
$ firejail --whitelist=/tmp/.X11-unix --whitelist=/dev/null
 
$ firejail "--whitelist=/home/username/My Virtual Machines"
 
--writable-etc
Mount /etc directory read-write.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ sudo firejail --writable-etc
 
--writable-var
Mount /var directory read-write.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ sudo firejail --writable-var
 
--writable-var-log
Use the real /var/log directory, not a clone. By default, a tmpfs is mounted on top of /var/log directory, and a skeleton filesystem is created based on the original /var/log.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ sudo firejail --writable-var-log
 
 
--x11
Sandbox the application using Xpra, Xephyr, Xvfb or Xorg security extension. The sandbox will prevents screenshot and keylogger applications started inside the sandbox from accessing clients running outside the sandbox. Firejail will try first Xpra, and if Xpra is not installed on the system, it will try to find Xephyr. If all fails, Firejail will not attempt to use Xvfb or X11 security extension.
 
 
 
Xpra, Xephyr and Xvfb modes require a network namespace to be instantiated in order to disable X11 abstract Unix socket. If this is not possible, the user can disable the abstract socket by adding "-nolisten local" on Xorg command line at system level.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --x11 --net=eth0 firefox
 
--x11=none
Blacklist /tmp/.X11-unix directory, ${HOME}/.Xauthority and the file specified in ${XAUTHORITY} environment variable. Remove DISPLAY and XAUTHORITY environment variables. Stop with error message if X11 abstract socket will be accessible in jail.
 
--x11=xephyr
Start Xephyr and attach the sandbox to this server. Xephyr is a display server implementing the X11 display server protocol. A network namespace needs to be instantiated in order to deny access to X11 abstract Unix domain socket.
 
 
 
Xephyr runs in a window just like any other X11 application. The default window size is 800x600. This can be modified in /etc/firejail/firejail.config file.
 
 
 
The recommended way to use this feature is to run a window manager inside the sandbox. A security profile for OpenBox is provided.
 
 
 
Xephyr is developed by Xorg project. On Debian platforms it is installed with the command sudo apt-get install xserver-xephyr. This feature is not available when running as root.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --x11=xephyr --net=eth0 openbox
 
--x11=xorg
Sandbox the application using the untrusted mode implemented by X11 security extension. The extension is available in Xorg package and it is installed by default on most Linux distributions. It provides support for a simple trusted/untrusted connection model. Untrusted clients are restricted in certain ways to prevent them from reading window contents of other clients, stealing input events, etc.
 
The untrusted mode has several limitations. A lot of regular programs assume they are a trusted X11 clients and will crash or lock up when run in untrusted mode. Chromium browser and xterm are two examples. Firefox and transmission-gtk seem to be working fine. A network namespace is not required for this option.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --x11=xorg firefox
 
--x11=xpra
Start Xpra (http://xpra.org) and attach the sandbox to this server. Xpra is a persistent remote display server and client for forwarding X11 applications and desktop screens. A network namespace needs to be instantiated in order to deny access to X11 abstract Unix domain socket.
 
 
 
On Debian platforms Xpra is installed with the command sudo apt-get install xpra. This feature is not available when running as root.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --x11=xpra --net=eth0 firefox
 
 
--x11=xvfb
Start Xvfb X11 server and attach the sandbox to this server. Xvfb, short for X virtual framebuffer, performs all graphical operations in memory without showing any screen output. Xvfb is mainly used for remote access and software testing on headless servers.
 
 
 
On Debian platforms Xvfb is installed with the command sudo apt-get install xvfb. This feature is not available when running as root.
 
 
 
Example: remote VNC access
 
 
 
On the server we start a sandbox using Xvfb and openbox window manager. The default size of Xvfb screen is 800x600 - it can be changed in /etc/firejail/firejail.config (xvfb-screen). Some sort of networking (--net) is required in order to isolate the abstract sockets used by other X servers.
 
 
 
$ firejail --net=none --x11=xvfb openbox
 
 
 
*** Attaching to Xvfb display 792 ***
 
 
 
Reading profile /etc/firejail/openbox.profile
 
Reading profile /etc/firejail/disable-common.inc
 
Reading profile /etc/firejail/disable-common.local
 
Parent pid 5400, child pid 5401
 
 
 
On the server we also start a VNC server and attach it to the display handled by our Xvfb server (792).
 
 
 
$ x11vnc -display :792
 
 
 
On the client machine we start a VNC viewer and use it to connect to our server:
 
 
 
$ vncviewer
 
 
--xephyr-screen=WIDTHxHEIGHT
Set screen size for --x11=xephyr. The setting will overwrite the default set in /etc/firejail/firejail.config for the current sandbox. Run xrandr to get a list of supported resolutions on your computer.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --net=eth0 --x11=xephyr --xephyr-screen=640x480 firefox
 
 
--zsh
Use /usr/bin/zsh as default user shell.
 
 
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --zsh
 

DESKTOP INTEGRATION

A symbolic link to /usr/bin/firejail under the name of a program, will start the program in Firejail sandbox. The symbolic link should be placed in the first $PATH position. On most systems, a good place is /usr/local/bin directory. Example:
 
 
 
Make a firefox symlink to /usr/bin/firejail:
 
 
 
$ ln -s /usr/bin/firejail /usr/local/bin/firefox
 
 
 
Verify $PATH
 
 
 
$ which -a firefox
 
/usr/local/bin/firefox
 
/usr/bin/firefox
 
 
 
Starting firefox in this moment, automatically invokes “firejail firefox”.
 
 
 
This works for clicking on desktop environment icons, menus etc. Use "firejail --tree" to verify the program is sandboxed.
 
 
 
 
$ firejail --tree
 
1189:netblue:firejail firefox
 

1190:netblue:firejail firefox
 

1220:netblue:/bin/sh -c "/usr/lib/firefox/firefox"
 

1221:netblue:/usr/lib/firefox/firefox
 
We provide a tool that automates all this integration, please see man 1 firecfg for more details.
 

APPARMOR

AppArmor support is disabled by default at compile time. Use --enable-apparmor configuration option to enable it:
 
 
 
$ ./configure --prefix=/usr --enable-apparmor
During software install, a generic AppArmor profile file, firejail-default, is placed in /etc/apparmor.d directory. The profile needs to be loaded into the kernel by running the following command as root:
 
 
 
# aa-enforce firejail-default
The installed profile tries to replicate some advanced security features inspired by kernel-based Grsecurity:
 
 
 
- Prevent information leakage in /proc and /sys directories. The resulting filesystem is barely enough for running commands such as "top" and "ps aux".
 
 
 
- Allow running programs only from well-known system paths, such as /bin, /sbin, /usr/bin etc. Running programs and scripts from user home or other directories writable by the user is not allowed.
 
 
 
- Disable D-Bus. D-Bus has long been a huge security hole, and most programs don't use it anyway. You should have no problems running Chromium or Firefox.
 
To enable AppArmor confinement on top of your current Firejail security features, pass --apparmor flag to Firejail command line. You can also include apparmor command in a Firejail profile file. Example:
 
 
 
$ firejail --apparmor firefox
 

FILE TRANSFER

These features allow the user to inspect the filesystem container of an existing sandbox and transfer files from the container to the host filesystem.
 
--get=name|pid filename
Retrieve the container file and store it on the host in the current working directory. The container is specified by name or PID.
 
--ls=name|pid dir_or_filename
List container files. The container is specified by name or PID.
 
--put=name|pid src-filename dest-filename
Put src-filename in sandbox container. The container is specified by name or PID.
 
Examples:
 
 
 
$ firejail --name=mybrowser --private firefox
 
 
 
$ firejail --ls=mybrowser ~/Downloads
 
drwxr-xr-x netblue netblue 4096 .
 
drwxr-xr-x netblue netblue 4096 ..
 
-rw-r--r-- netblue netblue 7847 x11-x305.png
 
-rw-r--r-- netblue netblue 6800 x11-x642.png
 
-rw-r--r-- netblue netblue 34139 xpra-clipboard.png
 
 
 
$ firejail --get=mybrowser ~/Downloads/xpra-clipboard.png
 
 
 
$ firejail --put=mybrowser xpra-clipboard.png ~/Downloads/xpra-clipboard.png
 
 

TRAFFIC SHAPING

Network bandwidth is an expensive resource shared among all sandboxes running on a system. Traffic shaping allows the user to increase network performance by controlling the amount of data that flows into and out of the sandboxes.
 
Firejail implements a simple rate-limiting shaper based on Linux command tc. The shaper works at sandbox level, and can be used only for sandboxes configured with new network namespaces.
 
Set rate-limits:
 
$ firejail --bandwidth=name|pid set network download upload
 
Clear rate-limits:
 
$ firejail --bandwidth=name|pid clear network
 
Status:
 
$ firejail --bandwidth=name|pid status
 
where:
 
name - sandbox name
 
pid - sandbox pid
 
network - network interface as used by --net option
 
download - download speed in KB/s (kilobyte per second)
 
upload - upload speed in KB/s (kilobyte per second)
 
Example:
 
$ firejail --name=mybrowser --net=eth0 firefox &
 
$ firejail --bandwidth=mybrowser set eth0 80 20
 
$ firejail --bandwidth=mybrowser status
 
$ firejail --bandwidth=mybrowser clear eth0
 

AUDIT

Audit feature allows the user to point out gaps in security profiles. The implementation replaces the program to be sandboxed with a test program. By default, we use faudit program distributed with Firejail. A custom test program can also be supplied by the user. Examples:
 
Running the default audit program:
 
$ firejail --audit transmission-gtk
 
Running a custom audit program:
 
$ firejail --audit=~/sandbox-test transmission-gtk
 
In the examples above, the sandbox configures transmission-gtk profile and starts the test program. The real program, transmission-gtk, will not be started.
 
Limitations: audit feature is not implemented for --x11 commands.
 

MONITORING

Option --list prints a list of all sandboxes. The format for each process entry is as follows:
 
PID:USER:Command
 
Option --tree prints the tree of processes running in the sandbox. The format for each process entry is as follows:
 
PID:USER:Command
 
Option --top is similar to the UNIX top command, however it applies only to sandboxes.
 
Option --netstats prints network statistics for active sandboxes installing new network namespaces.
 
 
Listed below are the available fields (columns) in alphabetical order for --top and --netstat options:
 
Command
Command used to start the sandbox.
CPU%
CPU usage, the sandbox share of the elapsed CPU time since the last screen update
PID
Unique process ID for the task controlling the sandbox.
Prcs
Number of processes running in sandbox, including the controlling process.
RES
Resident Memory Size (KiB), sandbox non-swapped physical memory. It is a sum of the RES values for all processes running in the sandbox.
RX(KB/s)
Network receive speed.
SHR
Shared Memory Size (KiB), it reflects memory shared with other processes. It is a sum of the SHR values for all processes running in the sandbox, including the controlling process.
TX(KB/s)
Network transmit speed.
Uptime
Sandbox running time in hours:minutes:seconds format.
User
The owner of the sandbox.
 

SECURITY PROFILES

Several command line options can be passed to the program using profile files. Firejail chooses the profile file as follows:
 
1. If a profile file is provided by the user with --profile option, the profile file is loaded. Example:
$ firejail --profile=/home/netblue/icecat.profile icecat
 
Reading profile /home/netblue/icecat.profile
 
[...]
 
2. If a profile file with the same name as the application is present in ~/.config/firejail directory or in /etc/firejail, the profile is loaded. ~/.config/firejail takes precedence over /etc/firejail. Example:
$ firejail icecat
 
Command name #icecat#
 
Found icecat profile in /home/netblue/.config/firejail directory
 
Reading profile /home/netblue/.config/firejail/icecat.profile
 
[...]
 
3. Use default.profile file if the sandbox is started by a regular user, or server.profile file if the sandbox is started by root. Firejail looks for these files in ~/.config/firejail directory, followed by /etc/firejail directory. To disable default profile loading, use --noprofile command option. Example:
$ firejail
 
Reading profile /etc/firejail/default.profile
 
Parent pid 8553, child pid 8554
 
Child process initialized
 
[...]
 
 
 
$ firejail --noprofile
 
Parent pid 8553, child pid 8554
 
Child process initialized
 
[...]
 
See man 5 firejail-profile for profile file syntax information.
 

RESTRICTED SHELL

To configure a restricted shell, replace /bin/bash with /usr/bin/firejail in /etc/passwd file for each user that needs to be restricted. Alternatively, you can specify /usr/bin/firejail in adduser command:
 
adduser --shell /usr/bin/firejail username
 
Additional arguments passed to firejail executable upon login are declared in /etc/firejail/login.users file.
 

EXAMPLES

firejail
Sandbox a regular /bin/bash session.
firejail firefox
Start Mozilla Firefox.
firejail --debug firefox
Debug Firefox sandbox.
firejail --private firefox
Start Firefox with a new, empty home directory.
firejail --net=none vlc
Start VLC in an unconnected network namespace.
firejail --net=eth0 firefox
Start Firefox in a new network namespace. An IP address is assigned automatically.
firejail --net=br0 --ip=10.10.20.5 --net=br1 --net=br2
Start a /bin/bash session in a new network namespace and connect it to br0, br1, and br2 host bridge devices. IP addresses are assigned automatically for the interfaces connected to br1 and b2
firejail --list
List all sandboxed processes.

LICENSE

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
Homepage: http://firejail.wordpress.com

SEE ALSO

firemon(1), firecfg(1), firejail-profile(5), firejail-login(5)
Sep 2017 0.9.50