git - the stupid content tracker
git [--version] [--help] [-C <path>] [-c <name>=<value>]
[--exec-path[=<path>]] [--html-path] [--man-path] [--info-path]
[-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects] [--bare]
[--git-dir=<path>] [--work-tree=<path>] [--namespace=<name>]
Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an unusually
rich command set that provides both high-level operations and full access to
(7) to get started, then see giteveryday
(7) for a
useful minimum set of commands. The Git User’s Manual
 has a
more in-depth introduction.
After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this page to learn
what commands Git offers. You can learn more about individual Git commands
with "git help command". gitcli
(7) manual page gives you an
overview of the command-line command syntax.
A formatted and hyperlinked copy of the latest Git documentation can be viewed
Prints the Git suite version that the
git program came from.
Prints the synopsis and a list of the most
commonly used commands. If the option --all
is given then
all available commands are printed. If a Git command is named this option will
bring up the manual page for that command.
Other options are available to control how the manual page is displayed. See
(1) for more information, because git --help ...
converted internally into git help ...
Run as if git was started in
instead of the current working directory. When multiple
options are given, each subsequent non-absolute -C
is interpreted relative to the preceding -C
This option affects options that expect path name like --git-dir
in that their interpretations of the path names would be
made relative to the working directory caused by the -C
example the following invocations are equivalent:
git --git-dir=a.git --work-tree=b -C c status
git --git-dir=c/a.git --work-tree=c/b status
Pass a configuration parameter to the command.
The value given will override values from configuration files. The
<name> is expected in the same format as listed by git config
(subkeys separated by dots).
Note that omitting the =
in git -c foo.bar ...
is allowed and sets
to the boolean true value (just like [foo]bar
would in a
config file). Including the equals but with an empty value (like git -c
) sets foo.bar
to the empty string.
Path to wherever your core Git programs are
installed. This can also be controlled by setting the GIT_EXEC_PATH
environment variable. If no path is given, git will print the current
setting and then exit.
Print the path, without trailing slash, where
Git’s HTML documentation is installed and exit.
Print the manpath (see man(1)) for the
man pages for this version of Git and exit.
Print the path where the Info files
documenting this version of Git are installed and exit.
Pipe all output into less (or if set,
$PAGER) if standard output is a terminal. This overrides the
pager.<cmd> configuration options (see the "Configuration
Mechanism" section below).
Do not pipe Git output into a pager.
Set the path to the repository. This can also
be controlled by setting the GIT_DIR environment variable. It can be an
absolute path or relative path to current working directory.
Set the path to the working tree. It can be an
absolute path or a path relative to the current working directory. This can
also be controlled by setting the GIT_WORK_TREE environment variable and the
core.worktree configuration variable (see core.worktree in
git-config(1) for a more detailed discussion).
Set the Git namespace. See
gitnamespaces(7) for more details. Equivalent to setting the
GIT_NAMESPACE environment variable.
Currently for internal use only. Set a prefix
which gives a path from above a repository down to its root. One use is to
give submodules context about the superproject that invoked it.
Treat the repository as a bare repository. If
GIT_DIR environment is not set, it is set to the current working
Do not use replacement refs to replace Git
objects. See git-replace(1) for more information.
Treat pathspecs literally (i.e. no globbing,
no pathspec magic). This is equivalent to setting the
GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS environment variable to 1.
Add "glob" magic to all pathspec.
This is equivalent to setting the GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS environment
variable to 1. Disabling globbing on individual pathspecs can be done
using pathspec magic ":(literal)"
Add "literal" magic to all pathspec.
This is equivalent to setting the GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS environment
variable to 1. Enabling globbing on individual pathspecs can be done
using pathspec magic ":(glob)"
Add "icase" magic to all pathspec.
This is equivalent to setting the GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS environment
variable to 1.
We divide Git into high level ("porcelain") commands and low level
We separate the porcelain commands into the main commands and some ancillary
Add file contents to the index.
Apply a series of patches from a
Create an archive of files from a named
Use binary search to find the commit that
introduced a bug.
List, create, or delete branches.
Move objects and refs by archive.
Switch branches or restore working tree
Apply the changes introduced by some existing
Graphical alternative to git-commit.
Remove untracked files from the working
Clone a repository into a new directory.
Record changes to the repository.
Describe a commit using the most recent tag
reachable from it.
Show changes between commits, commit and
working tree, etc.
Download objects and refs from another
Prepare patches for e-mail submission.
Cleanup unnecessary files and optimize the
Print lines matching a pattern.
A portable graphical interface to Git.
Create an empty Git repository or reinitialize
an existing one.
Show commit logs.
Join two or more development histories
Move or rename a file, a directory, or a
Add or inspect object notes.
Fetch from and integrate with another
repository or a local branch.
Update remote refs along with associated
Reapply commits on top of another base
Reset current HEAD to the specified
Revert some existing commits.
Remove files from the working tree and from
Summarize git log output.
Show various types of objects.
Stash the changes in a dirty working directory
Show the working tree status.
Initialize, update or inspect
Create, list, delete or verify a tag object
signed with GPG.
Manage multiple working trees.
The Git repository browser.
Get and set repository or global
Git data exporter.
Backend for fast Git data importers.
Run merge conflict resolution tools to resolve
Pack heads and tags for efficient repository
Prune all unreachable objects from the object
Manage reflog information.
Manage set of tracked repositories.
Pack unpacked objects in a repository.
Create, list, delete refs to replace
Annotate file lines with commit
Show what revision and author last modified
each line of a file.
Find commits yet to be applied to
Count unpacked number of objects and their
Show changes using common diff tools.
Verifies the connectivity and validity of the
objects in the database.
Extract commit ID from an archive created
Display help information about Git.
Instantly browse your working repository in
Show three-way merge without touching
Reuse recorded resolution of conflicted
Pick out and massage parameters.
Show branches and their commits.
Check the GPG signature of commits.
Check the GPG signature of tags.
Show logs with difference each commit
Git web interface (web frontend to Git
These commands are to interact with foreign SCM and with other people via patch
Import an Arch repository into Git.
Export a single commit to a CVS
Salvage your data out of another SCM people
love to hate.
A CVS server emulator for Git.
Send a collection of patches from stdin to an
Import from and submit to Perforce
Applies a quilt patchset onto the current
Generates a summary of pending changes.
Send a collection of patches as emails.
Bidirectional operation between a Subversion
repository and Git.
Although Git includes its own porcelain layer, its low-level commands are
sufficient to support development of alternative porcelains. Developers of
such porcelains might start by reading about git-update-index
The interface (input, output, set of options and the semantics) to these
low-level commands are meant to be a lot more stable than Porcelain level
commands, because these commands are primarily for scripted use. The interface
to Porcelain commands on the other hand are subject to change in order to
improve the end user experience.
The following description divides the low-level commands into commands that
manipulate objects (in the repository, index, and working tree), commands that
interrogate and compare objects, and commands that move objects and references
Apply a patch to files and/or to the
Copy files from the index to the working
Create a new commit object.
Compute object ID and optionally creates a
blob from a file.
Build pack index file for an existing packed
Run a three-way file merge.
Run a merge for files needing merging.
Creates a tag object.
Build a tree-object from ls-tree formatted
Create a packed archive of objects.
Remove extra objects that are already in pack
Reads tree information into the index.
Read, modify and delete symbolic refs.
Unpack objects from a packed archive.
Register file contents in the working tree to
Update the object name stored in a ref
Create a tree object from the current
Provide content or type and size information
for repository objects.
Compares files in the working tree and the
Compare a tree to the working tree or
Compares the content and mode of blobs found
via two tree objects.
Output information on each ref.
Show information about files in the index and
the working tree.
List references in a remote repository.
List the contents of a tree object.
Find as good common ancestors as possible for
Find symbolic names for given revs.
Find redundant pack files.
Lists commit objects in reverse chronological
Show packed archive index.
List references in a local repository.
Creates a temporary file with a blob’s
Show a Git logical variable.
Validate packed Git archive files.
In general, the interrogate commands do not touch the files in the working tree.
A really simple server for Git
Receive missing objects from another
Server side implementation of Git over
Push objects over Git protocol to another
Update auxiliary info file to help dumb
The following are helper commands used by the above; end users typically do not
use them directly.
Download from a remote Git repository via
Push objects over HTTP/DAV to another
Routines to help parsing remote repository
Receive what is pushed into the
Restricted login shell for Git-only SSH
Send archive back to git-archive.
Send objects packed back to
These are internal helper commands used by other commands; end users typically
do not use them directly.
Display gitattributes information.
Debug gitignore / exclude files.
Show canonical names and email addresses of
Ensures that a reference name is well
Display data in columns.
Retrieve and store user credentials.
Helper to temporarily store passwords in
Helper to store credentials on disk.
Produce a merge commit message.
help add structured information into commit
Extracts patch and authorship from a single
Simple UNIX mbox splitter program.
The standard helper program to use with
Compute unique ID for a patch.
Git’s i18n setup code for shell
Common Git shell script setup code.
Remove unnecessary whitespace.
Git uses a simple text format to store customizations that are per repository
and are per user. Such a configuration file may look like this:
# A '#' or ';' character indicates a comment.
; core variables
; Don't trust file modes
filemode = false
; user identity
name = "Junio C Hamano"
email = "email@example.com"
Various commands read from the configuration file and adjust their operation
accordingly. See git-config
(1) for a list and more details about the
Indicates the object name for any type of
Indicates a blob object name.
Indicates a tree object name.
Indicates a commit object name.
Indicates a tree, commit or tag object name. A
command that takes a <tree-ish> argument ultimately wants to operate on
a <tree> object but automatically dereferences <commit> and
<tag> objects that point at a <tree>.
Indicates a commit or tag object name. A
command that takes a <commit-ish> argument ultimately wants to operate
on a <commit> object but automatically dereferences <tag> objects
that point at a <commit>.
Indicates that an object type is required.
Currently one of: blob, tree, commit, or
Indicates a filename - almost always relative
to the root of the tree structure GIT_INDEX_FILE describes.
Any Git command accepting any <object> can also use the following symbolic
indicates the head of the current
a valid tag name (i.e. a
a valid head name (i.e. a
For a more complete list of ways to spell object names, see "SPECIFYING
REVISIONS" section in gitrevisions
Please see the gitrepository-layout
(5) for more details about each hook.
Higher level SCMs may provide and manage additional information in the
Please see gitglossary
Various Git commands use the following environment variables:
These environment variables apply to all
core Git commands. Nb: it is
worth noting that they may be used/overridden by SCMS sitting above Git so
take care if using a foreign front-end.
This environment allows the specification of
an alternate index file. If not specified, the default of
$GIT_DIR/index is used.
This environment variable allows the
specification of an index version for new repositories. It won’t affect
existing index files. By default index file version 2 or 3 is used. See
git-update-index(1) for more information.
If the object storage directory is specified
via this environment variable then the sha1 directories are created underneath
- otherwise the default $GIT_DIR/objects directory is used.
Due to the immutable nature of Git objects,
old objects can be archived into shared, read-only directories. This variable
specifies a ":" separated (on Windows ";" separated) list
of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git objects. New
objects will not be written to these directories.
Entries that begin with `"` (double-quote) will be interpreted
as C-style quoted paths, removing leading and trailing
double-quotes and respecting backslash escapes. E.g., the value
`"path-with-\"-and-:-in-it":vanilla-path` has two paths:
`path-with-"-and-:-in-it` and `vanilla-path`.
If the GIT_DIR environment variable is
set then it specifies a path to use instead of the default .git for the
base of the repository. The --git-dir command-line option also sets
Set the path to the root of the working tree.
This can also be controlled by the --work-tree command-line option and
the core.worktree configuration variable.
Set the Git namespace; see
gitnamespaces(7) for details. The --namespace command-line
option also sets this value.
This should be a colon-separated list of
absolute paths. If set, it is a list of directories that Git should not chdir
up into while looking for a repository directory (useful for excluding
slow-loading network directories). It will not exclude the current working
directory or a GIT_DIR set on the command line or in the environment.
Normally, Git has to read the entries in this list and resolve any symlink
that might be present in order to compare them with the current directory.
However, if even this access is slow, you can add an empty entry to the list
to tell Git that the subsequent entries are not symlinks and needn’t be
When run in a directory that does not have
".git" repository directory, Git tries to find such a directory in
the parent directories to find the top of the working tree, but by default it
does not cross filesystem boundaries. This environment variable can be set to
true to tell Git not to stop at filesystem boundaries. Like
GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES, this will not affect an explicit repository
directory set via GIT_DIR or on the command line.
If this variable is set to a path,
non-worktree files that are normally in $GIT_DIR will be taken from this path
instead. Worktree-specific files such as HEAD or index are taken from
$GIT_DIR. See gitrepository-layout(5) and git-worktree(1) for
details. This variable has lower precedence than other path variables such as
Only valid setting is "--unified=??"
or "-u??" to set the number of context lines shown when a unified
diff is created. This takes precedence over any "-U" or
"--unified" option value passed on the Git diff command line.
When the environment variable
is set, the program named by it is called, instead of
the diff invocation described above. For a path that is added, removed, or
is called with 7 parameters:
path old-file old-hex old-mode new-file new-hex new-mode
are files GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF can use to read
the contents of <old|new>,
are the 40-hexdigit SHA-1 hashes,
are the octal representation of the file
The file parameters can point at the user’s working file (e.g.
in "git-diff-files"), /dev/null
when a new file is added), or a temporary file (e.g.
in the index). GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF
should not worry about
unlinking the temporary file --- it is removed when GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF
For a path that is unmerged, GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF
is called with 1
For each path GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF
is called, two environment variables,
A 1-based counter incremented by one for every
The total number of paths.
A number controlling the amount of output
shown by the recursive merge strategy. Overrides merge.verbosity. See
This environment variable overrides
$PAGER. If it is set to an empty string or to the value
"cat", Git will not launch a pager. See also the core.pager
option in git-config(1).
This environment variable overrides
$EDITOR and $VISUAL. It is used by several Git commands when, on
interactive mode, an editor is to be launched. See also git-var(1) and
the core.editor option in git-config(1).
If either of these environment variables is
set then git fetch
and git push
will use the specified command
instead of ssh
when they need to connect to a remote system. The
command will be given exactly two or four arguments: the username@host
(or just host
) from the URL and the shell command to execute on that
remote system, optionally preceded by -p
(literally) and the
from the URL when it specifies something other than the default
takes precedence over $GIT_SSH
, and is
interpreted by the shell, which allows additional arguments to be included.
on the other hand must be just the path to a program (which
can be a wrapper shell script, if additional arguments are needed).
Usually it is easier to configure any desired options through your personal
file. Please consult your ssh documentation for further
If this environment variable is set, it
overrides Git’s autodetection whether
GIT_SSH/GIT_SSH_COMMAND/ core.sshCommand refer to
OpenSSH, plink or tortoiseplink. This variable overrides the config setting
ssh.variant that serves the same purpose.
If this environment variable is set, then Git
commands which need to acquire passwords or passphrases (e.g. for HTTP or IMAP
authentication) will call this program with a suitable prompt as command-line
argument and read the password from its STDOUT. See also the
core.askPass option in git-config(1).
If this environment variable is set to
0, git will not prompt on the terminal (e.g., when asking for HTTP
Whether to skip reading settings from the
system-wide $(prefix)/etc/gitconfig file. This environment variable can
be used along with $HOME and $XDG_CONFIG_HOME to create a
predictable environment for a picky script, or you can set it temporarily to
avoid using a buggy /etc/gitconfig file while waiting for someone with
sufficient permissions to fix it.
If this environment variable is set to
"1", then commands such as git blame (in incremental mode),
git rev-list, git log, git check-attr and git
check-ignore will force a flush of the output stream after each record
have been flushed. If this variable is set to "0", the output of
these commands will be done using completely buffered I/O. If this environment
variable is not set, Git will choose buffered or record-oriented flushing
based on whether stdout appears to be redirected to a file or not.
Enables general trace messages, e.g. alias
expansion, built-in command execution and external command execution.
If this variable is set to "1", "2" or "true"
(comparison is case insensitive), trace messages will be printed to stderr.
If the variable is set to an integer value greater than 2 and lower than 10
(strictly) then Git will interpret this value as an open file descriptor and
will try to write the trace messages into this file descriptor.
Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path (starting with a
character), Git will interpret this as a file path and will try to
write the trace messages into it.
Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
"false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
Enables trace messages for all accesses to any
packs. For each access, the pack file name and an offset in the pack is
recorded. This may be helpful for troubleshooting some pack-related
performance problems. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output
Enables trace messages for all packets coming
in or out of a given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet starting with
"PACK" (but see GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE below). See
GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.
Enables tracing of packfiles sent or received
by a given program. Unlike other trace output, this trace is verbatim: no
headers, and no quoting of binary data. You almost certainly want to direct
into a file (e.g., GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE=/tmp/my.pack
) rather than
displaying it on the terminal or mixing it with other trace output.
Note that this is currently only implemented for the client side of clones and
Enables performance related trace messages,
e.g. total execution time of each Git command. See GIT_TRACE for
available trace output options.
Enables trace messages printing the .git,
working tree and current working directory after Git has completed its setup
phase. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.
Enables trace messages that can help debugging
fetching / cloning of shallow repositories. See GIT_TRACE for available
trace output options.
Enables a curl full trace dump of all incoming
and outgoing data, including descriptive information, of the git transport
protocol. This is similar to doing curl --trace-ascii on the command
line. This option overrides setting the GIT_CURL_VERBOSE environment
variable. See GIT_TRACE for available trace output options.
Setting this variable to 1 will cause
Git to treat all pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For
example, running GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c' will search
for commits that touch the path *.c, not any paths that the glob
*.c matches. You might want this if you are feeding literal paths to
Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by git ls-tree, --raw
diff output, etc).
Setting this variable to 1 will cause
Git to treat all pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob"
Setting this variable to 1 will cause
Git to treat all pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
Setting this variable to 1 will cause
Git to treat all pathspecs as case-insensitive.
When a ref is updated, reflog entries are
created to keep track of the reason why the ref was updated (which is
typically the name of the high-level command that updated the ref), in
addition to the old and new values of the ref. A scripted Porcelain command
can use set_reflog_action helper function in git-sh-setup to set its
name to this variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the end
user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
If set to 1, include broken or badly
named refs when iterating over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted
repository, this does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and
abort some operations in the presence of broken refs. Git sets this variable
automatically when performing destructive operations like git-prune(1).
You should not need to set it yourself unless you want to be paranoid about
making sure an operation has touched every ref (e.g., because you are cloning
a repository to make a backup).
If set to a colon-separated list of protocols,
behave as if protocol.allow is set to never, and each of the
listed protocols has protocol.<name>.allow set to always
(overriding any existing configuration). In other words, any protocol not
mentioned will be disallowed (i.e., this is a whitelist, not a blacklist). See
the description of protocol.allow in git-config(1) for more
Set to 0 to prevent protocols used by
fetch/push/clone which are configured to the user state. This is useful
to restrict recursive submodule initialization from an untrusted repository or
for programs which feed potentially-untrusted URLS to git commands. See
git-config(1) for more details.
More detail on the following is available from the Git concepts chapter of
 and gitcore-tutorial
A Git project normally consists of a working directory with a ".git"
subdirectory at the top level. The .git directory contains, among other
things, a compressed object database representing the complete history of the
project, an "index" file which links that history to the current
contents of the working tree, and named pointers into that history such as
tags and branch heads.
The object database contains objects of three main types: blobs, which hold file
data; trees, which point to blobs and other trees to build up directory
hierarchies; and commits, which each reference a single tree and some number
of parent commits.
The commit, equivalent to what other systems call a "changeset" or
"version", represents a step in the project’s history, and
each parent represents an immediately preceding step. Commits with more than
one parent represent merges of independent lines of development.
All objects are named by the SHA-1 hash of their contents, normally written as a
string of 40 hex digits. Such names are globally unique. The entire history
leading up to a commit can be vouched for by signing just that commit. A
fourth object type, the tag, is provided for this purpose.
When first created, objects are stored in individual files, but for efficiency
may later be compressed together into "pack files".
Named pointers called refs mark interesting points in history. A ref may contain
the SHA-1 name of an object or the name of another ref. Refs with names
contain the SHA-1 name of the most recent commit
(or "head") of a branch under development. SHA-1 names of tags of
interest are stored under ref/tags/
. A special ref named HEAD
contains the name of the currently checked-out branch.
The index file is initialized with a list of all paths and, for each path, a
blob object and a set of attributes. The blob object represents the contents
of the file as of the head of the current branch. The attributes (last
modified time, size, etc.) are taken from the corresponding file in the
working tree. Subsequent changes to the working tree can be found by comparing
these attributes. The index may be updated with new content, and new commits
may be created from the content stored in the index.
The index is also capable of storing multiple entries (called
"stages") for a given pathname. These stages are used to hold the
various unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
See the references in the "description" section to get started using
Git. The following is probably more detail than necessary for a first-time
The Git concepts chapter of the user-manual
(7) both provide introductions to the underlying Git
(7) for an overview of recommended workflows.
See also the howto
 documents for some useful examples.
The internals are documented in the Git API documentation
Users migrating from CVS may also want to read gitcvs-migration
Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio C
Hamano. Numerous contributions have come from the Git mailing list <
gives you a more
complete list of contributors.
If you have a clone of git.git itself, the output of git-shortlog
(1) can show you the authors for specific parts of the
Report bugs to the Git mailing list < firstname.lastname@example.org
the development and maintenance is primarily done. You do not have to be
subscribed to the list to send a message there.
(7), The Git User’s Manual
Part of the git
- Git User’s Manual
- Git concepts chapter of the user-manual
- Git API documentation