git-commit-tree - Create a new commit object
git commit-tree <tree> [(-p <parent>)...]
git commit-tree [(-p <parent>)...] [-S[<keyid>]] [(-m <message>)...]
[(-F <file>)...] <tree>
This is usually not what an end user wants to run directly. See
Creates a new commit object based on the provided tree object and emits the new
commit object id on stdout. The log message is read from the standard input,
options are given.
A commit object may have any number of parents. With exactly one parent, it is
an ordinary commit. Having more than one parent makes the commit a merge
between several lines of history. Initial (root) commits have no parents.
While a tree represents a particular directory state of a working directory, a
commit represents that state in "time", and explains how to get
Normally a commit would identify a new "HEAD" state, and while Git
doesn’t care where you save the note about that state, in practice we
tend to just write the result to the file that is pointed at by
, so that we can always see what the last committed state was.
An existing tree object
Each -p indicates the id of a parent
A paragraph in the commit log message. This
can be given more than once and each <message> becomes its own
Read the commit log message from the given
file. Use - to read from the standard input.
GPG-sign commits. The keyid argument is
optional and defaults to the committer identity; if specified, it must be
stuck to the option without a space.
Do not GPG-sign commit, to countermand a
--gpg-sign option given earlier on the command line.
A commit encapsulates:
•all parent object ids
•author name, email and date
•committer name and email and the
While parent object ids are provided on the command line, author and committer
information is taken from the following environment variables, if set:
(nb "<", ">" and "\n"s are stripped)
In case (some of) these environment variables are not set, the information is
taken from the configuration items user.name and user.email, or, if not
present, the environment variable EMAIL, or, if that is not set, system user
name and the hostname used for outgoing mail (taken from /etc/mailname
and falling back to the fully qualified hostname when that file does not
A commit comment is read from stdin. If a changelog entry is not provided via
"<" redirection, git commit-tree
will just wait for one to
be entered and terminated with ^D.
support the following date formats:
Git internal format
It is <unix timestamp> <time zone
offset>, where <unix timestamp> is the number of seconds
since the UNIX epoch. <time zone offset> is a positive or
negative offset from UTC. For example CET (which is 1 hour ahead of UTC) is
The standard email format as described by RFC
2822, for example Thu, 07 Apr 2005 22:13:13 +0200.
Time and date specified by the ISO 8601
standard, for example 2005-04-07T22:13:13
. The parser accepts a space
instead of the T
character as well.
In addition, the date part is accepted in the following formats:
Git is to some extent character encoding agnostic.
•The contents of the blob objects are
uninterpreted sequences of bytes. There is no encoding translation at the core
•Path names are encoded in UTF-8
normalization form C. This applies to tree objects, the index file, ref names,
as well as path names in command line arguments, environment variables and
config files ( .git/config
(5) and gitmodules
Note that Git at the core level treats path names simply as sequences of non-NUL
bytes, there are no path name encoding conversions (except on Mac and
Windows). Therefore, using non-ASCII path names will mostly work even on
platforms and file systems that use legacy extended ASCII encodings. However,
repositories created on such systems will not work properly on UTF-8-based
systems (e.g. Linux, Mac, Windows) and vice versa. Additionally, many
Git-based tools simply assume path names to be UTF-8 and will fail to display
other encodings correctly.
•Commit log messages are typically
encoded in UTF-8, but other extended ASCII encodings are also supported. This
includes ISO-8859-x, CP125x and many others, but not UTF-16/32, EBCDIC
and CJK multi-byte encodings (GBK, Shift-JIS, Big5, EUC-x, CP9xx etc.).
Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded in UTF-8, both
the core and Git Porcelain are designed not to force UTF-8 on projects. If all
participants of a particular project find it more convenient to use legacy
encodings, Git does not forbid it. However, there are a few things to keep in
issues a warning if the commit log message given to it does
not look like a valid UTF-8 string, unless you explicitly say your project
uses a legacy encoding. The way to say this is to have i18n.commitencoding in
file, like this:
commitEncoding = ISO-8859-1
Commit objects created with the above setting record the value of
in its encoding
header. This is to help
other people who look at them later. Lack of this header implies that the
commit log message is encoded in UTF-8.
, git show
and friends look at the encoding
header of a commit object,
and try to re-code the log message into UTF-8 unless otherwise specified. You
can specify the desired output encoding with i18n.logOutputEncoding
file, like this:
logOutputEncoding = ISO-8859-1
If you do not have this configuration variable, the value of
is used instead.
Note that we deliberately chose not to re-code the commit log message when a
commit is made to force UTF-8 at the commit object level, because re-coding to
UTF-8 is not necessarily a reversible operation.
Part of the git