git-replace - Create, list, delete refs to replace objects
git replace [-f] <object> <replacement>
git replace [-f] --edit <object>
git replace [-f] --graft <commit> [<parent>...]
git replace -d <object>...
git replace [--format=<format>] [-l [<pattern>]]
Adds a replace
reference in refs/replace/
The name of the replace
reference is the SHA-1 of the object that is
replaced. The content of the replace
reference is the SHA-1 of the
The replaced object and the replacement object must be of the same type. This
restriction can be bypassed using -f
is given, the replace
reference must not yet exist.
There is no other restriction on the replaced and replacement objects. Merge
commits can be replaced by non-merge commits and vice versa.
Replacement references will be used by default by all Git commands except those
doing reachability traversal (prune, pack transfer and fsck).
It is possible to disable use of replacement references for any command using
option just after git
For example if commit foo
has been replaced by commit bar
$ git --no-replace-objects cat-file commit foo
shows information about commit foo
$ git cat-file commit foo
shows information about commit bar
environment variable can be set to achieve the
same effect as the --no-replace-objects
If an existing replace ref for the same object
exists, it will be overwritten (instead of failing).
Delete existing replace refs for the given
Edit an object’s content interactively.
The existing content for <object> is pretty-printed into a temporary
file, an editor is launched on the file, and the result is parsed to create a
new object of the same type as <object>. A replacement ref is then
created to replace <object> with the newly created object. See
git-var(1) for details about how the editor will be chosen.
When editing, provide the raw object contents
rather than pretty-printed ones. Currently this only affects trees, which will
be shown in their binary form. This is harder to work with, but can help when
repairing a tree that is so corrupted it cannot be pretty-printed. Note that
you may need to configure your editor to cleanly read and write binary
--graft <commit> [<parent>...]
Create a graft commit. A new commit is created
with the same content as <commit> except that its parents will be
[<parent>...] instead of <commit>'s parents. A replacement ref is
then created to replace <commit> with the newly created commit. See
contrib/convert-grafts-to-replace-refs.sh for an example script based on this
option that can convert grafts to replace refs.
-l <pattern>, --list <pattern>
List replace refs for objects that match the
given pattern (or all if no pattern is given). Typing "git replace"
without arguments, also lists all replace refs.
When listing, use the specified
<format>, which can be one of short, medium and
long. When omitted, the format defaults to short.
The following format are available:
•medium: <replaced sha1>
→ <replacement sha1>
•long: <replaced sha1>
(<replaced type>) → <replacement sha1> (<replacement
(1) and git-rebase
among other git commands, can be used to create replacement objects from
existing objects. The --edit
option can also be used with git
to create a replacement object by editing an existing object.
If you want to replace many blobs, trees or commits that are part of a string of
commits, you may just want to create a replacement string of commits and then
only replace the commit at the tip of the target string of commits with the
commit at the tip of the replacement string of commits.
Comparing blobs or trees that have been replaced with those that replace them
will not work properly. And using git reset --hard
to go back to a
replaced commit will move the branch to the replacement commit instead of the
There may be other problems when using git rev-list
related to pending
Part of the git