Man pages sections > man3 > Catmandu::Util

Catmandu::Util - A collection of utility functions

Catmandu::Util(3pm) User Contributed Perl Documentation Catmandu::Util(3pm)

NAME

Catmandu::Util - A collection of utility functions

SYNOPSIS

    use Catmandu::Util qw(:string);
    $str = trim($str);

FUNCTIONS

IO functions

    use Catmandu::Util qw(:io);
io($io, %opts)
Takes a file path, glob, glob reference, scalar reference or IO::Handle object and returns an opened IO::Handle object.
 
    my $fh = io '/path/to/file';
    my $fh = io *STDIN;
    my $fh = io \*STDOUT, mode => 'w', binmode => ':crlf';
    my $write_cb = sub { my $str = $_[0]; ... };
    my $fh = io $write_cb, mode => 'w';
    my $scalar = "";
    my $fh = io \$scalar, mode => 'w';
    $fh->print("some text");
    
 
Options are:
mode
Default is "r".
binmode
Default is ":encoding(UTF-8)".
encoding
Alias for "binmode".
read_file($path);
[deprecated]: use tools like Path::Tiny instead.
 
Reads the file at $path into a string.
 
    my $str = read_file('/path/to/file.txt');
    
 
Throws a Catmandu::Error on failure.
read_io($io)
Reads an IO::Handle into a string.
 
   my $str = read_file($fh);
    
write_file($path, $str);
[deprecated]: use tools like use tools like File::Slurp::Tiny instead.
 
Writes the string $str to a file at $path.
 
    write_file('/path/to/file.txt', "contents");
    
 
Throws a Catmandu::Error on failure.
read_yaml($path);
Reads the YAML file at $path into a Perl hash.
 
    my $cfg = read_yaml($path);
    
 
Dies on failure reading the file or parsing the YAML.
read_json($path);
Reads the JSON file at $path into a Perl hash.
 
    my $cfg = read_json($path);
    
 
Dies on failure reading the file or parsing the JSON.
join_path(@path);
Joins relative paths into an absolute path.
 
    join_path('/path/..', './to', 'file.txt');
    # => "/to/file.txt"
    
normalize_path($path);
Normalizes a relative path to an absolute path.
 
    normalize_path('/path/../to/./file.txt');
    # => "/to/file.txt"
    
segmented_path($path);
    my $id = "FB41144C-F0ED-11E1-A9DE-61C894A0A6B4";
    segmented_path($id, segment_size => 4);
    # => "FB41/144C/F0ED/11E1/A9DE/61C8/94A0/A6B4"
    segmented_path($id, segment_size => 2, base_path => "/files");
    # => "/files/FB/41/14/4C/F0/ED/11/E1/A9/DE/61/C8/94/A0/A6/B4"
    
content_type($filename);
Guess the content type of a file name.
 
    content_type("book.pdf");
    # => "application/pdf"
    

Hash functions

    use Catmandu::Util qw(:hash);
A collection of functions that operate on hash references.
hash_merge($hash1, $hash2, ... , $hashN)
Merge <hash1> through <hashN>, with the nth-most (rightmost) hash taking precedence. Returns a new hash reference representing the merge.
 
    hash_merge({a => 1}, {b => 2}, {a => 3});
    # => { a => 3 , b => 2}
    

Array functions

    use Catmandu::Util qw(:array);
A collection of functions that operate on array references.
array_exists($array, $index)
Returns 1 if $index is in the bounds of $array
 
    array_exists(["a", "b"], 2);
    # => 0
    array_exists(["a", "b"], 1);
    # => 1
    
array_group_by($array, $key)
    my $list = [{color => 'black', id => 1},
                {color => 'white', id => 2},
                {id => 3},
                {color => 'black', id => 4}];
    array_group_by($list, 'color');
    # => {black => [{color => 'black', id => 1}, {color => 'black', id => 4}],
    #     white => [{color => 'white', id => 2}]}
    
array_pluck($array, $key)
    my $list = [{id => 1}, {}, {id => 3}];
    array_pluck($list, 'id');
    # => [1, undef, 3]
    
array_to_sentence($array)
array_to_sentence($array, $join)
array_to_sentence($array, $join, $join_last)
    array_to_sentence([1,2,3]);
    # => "1, 2 and 3"
    array_to_sentence([1,2,3], ",");
    # => "1,2 and 3"
    array_to_sentence([1,2,3], ",", " & ");
    # => "1,2 & 3"
    
array_sum($array)
    array_sum([1,2,3]);
    # => 6
    
array_includes($array, $val)
Returns 1 if $array includes a value that is deeply equal to $val, 0 otherwise. Comparison is done with "is_same()".
 
    array_includes([{color => 'black'}], {color => 'white'});
    # => 0
    array_includes([{color => 'black'}], {color => 'black'});
    # => 1
    
array_any($array, \&sub)
    array_any(["green", "blue"], sub { my $color = $_[0]; $color eq "blue" });
    # => 1
    
array_rest($array)
Returns a copy of $array without the head.
 
    array_rest([1,2,3,4]);
    # => [2,3,4]
    array_rest([1]);
    # => []
    
array_uniq($array)
Returns a copy of $array with all duplicates removed. Comparison is done with "is_same()".
array_split($array | $string)
Returns $array or a new array by splitting $string at commas.

String functions

    use Catmandu::Util qw(:string);
as_utf8($str)
Returns a copy of $str flagged as UTF-8.
trim($str)
Returns a copy of $str with leading and trailing whitespace removed.
capitalize($str)
Equivalent to "ucfirst lc as_utf8 $str".

Is functions

    use Catmandu::Util qw(:is);
    is_number(42) ? "it's numeric" : "it's not numeric";
    is_maybe_hash_ref({});
    # => 1
    is_maybe_hash_ref(undef);
    # => 1
    is_maybe_hash_ref([]);
    # => 0
A collection of predicate functions that test the type or value of argument $val. Each function (except "is_same()" and "is_different") also has a maybe variant that also tests true if $val is undefined. Returns 1 or 0.
is_invocant($val)
is_maybe_invocant($val)
Tests if $val is callable (is an existing package or blessed object).
is_able($val, @method_names)
is_maybe_able($val, @method_names)
Tests if $val is callable and has all methods in @method_names.
is_instance($val, @class_names)
is_maybe_instance($val, @class_names)
Tests if $val is a blessed object and an instance of all the classes in @class_names.
is_ref($val)
is_maybe_ref($val)
Tests if $val is a reference. Equivalent to "ref $val ? 1 : 0".
is_scalar_ref($val)
is_maybe_scalar_ref($val)
Tests if $val is a scalar reference.
is_array_ref($val)
is_maybe_array_ref($val)
Tests if $val is an array reference.
is_hash_ref($val)
is_maybe_hash_ref($val)
Tests if $val is a hash reference.
is_code_ref($val)
is_maybe_code_ref($val)
Tests if $val is a subroutine reference.
is_regex_ref($val)
is_maybe_regex_ref($val)
Tests if $val is a regular expression reference generated by the "qr//" operator.
is_glob_ref($val)
is_maybe_glob_ref($val)
Tests if $val is a glob reference.
is_value($val)
is_maybe_value($val)
Tests if $val is a real value (defined, not a reference and not a glob.
is_string($val)
is_maybe_string($val)
Tests if $val is a non-empty string. Equivalent to "is_value($val) && length($val) > 0".
is_number($val)
is_maybe_number($val)
Tests if $val is a number.
is_integer($val)
is_maybe_integer($val)
Tests if $val is an integer.
is_natural($val)
is_maybe_natural($val)
Tests if $val is a non-negative integer. Equivalent to "is_integer($val) && $val >= 0".
is_positive($val)
is_maybe_positive($val)
Tests if $val is a positive integer. Equivalent to "is_integer($val) && $val >= 1".
is_same($val, $other_val)
Tests if $val is deeply equal to $other_val.
is_different($val, $other_val)
The opposite of "is_same()".

Check functions

    use Catmandu::Util qw(:check);
    check_hash_ref({color => 'red'});
    # => {color => 'red'}
    check_hash_ref([]);
    # dies
A group of assert functions similar to the ":is" group, but instead of returning true or false they return their argument or die.
check_invocant($val)
check_maybe_invocant($val)
check_able($val, @method_names)
check_maybe_able($val, @method_names)
check_instance($val, @class_names)
check_maybe_instance($val, @class_names)
check_ref($val)
check_maybe_ref($val)
check_scalar_ref($val)
check_maybe_scalar_ref($val)
check_array_ref($val)
check_maybe_array_ref($val)
check_hash_ref($val)
check_maybe_hash_ref($val)
check_code_ref($val)
check_maybe_code_ref($val)
check_regex_ref($val)
check_maybe_regex_ref($val)
check_glob_ref($val)
check_maybe_glob_ref($val)
check_value($val)
check_maybe_value($val)
check_string($val)
check_maybe_string($val)
check_number($val)
check_maybe_number($val)
check_integer($val)
check_maybe_integer($val)
check_natural($val)
check_maybe_natural($val)
check_positive($val)
check_maybe_positive($val)
check_same($val, $other_val)
check_different($val, $other_val)

Human output functions

    use Catmandu::Util qw(:human);
human_number($num)
Insert a comma a 3-digit intervals to make $num more readable. Only works with integers for now.
 
    human_number(64354);
    # => "64,354"
    
human_byte_size($size)
    human_byte_size(64);
    # => "64 bytes"
    human_byte_size(10005000);
    # => "10.01 MB"
    
human_content_type($content_type)
human_content_type($content_type, $default)
    human_content_type('application/x-dos_ms_excel');
    # => "Excel"
    human_content_type('application/zip');
    # => "ZIP archive"
    human_content_type('foo/x-unknown');
    # => "foo/x-unknown"
    human_content_type('foo/x-unknown', 'Unknown');
    # => "Unknown"
    

XML functions

    use Catmandu::Util qw(:xml);
xml_declaration()
Returns "qq(<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>\n)".
xml_escape($str)
Returns an XML escaped copy of $str.

Miscellaneous functions

require_package($pkg)
require_package($pkg, $namespace)
Load package $pkg at runtime with "require" and return it's full name.
 
    my $pkg = require_package('File::Spec');
    my $dir = $pkg->tmpdir();
    require_package('Util', 'Catmandu');
    # => "Catmandu::Util"
    require_package('Catmandu::Util', 'Catmandu');
    # => "Catmandu::Util"
    
 
Throws a Catmandu::Error on failure.
use_lib(@dirs)
Add directories to @INC at runtime.
 
Throws a Catmandu::Error on failure.
pod_section($package_or_file, $section [, @options] )
Get documentation of a package for a selected section. Additional options are passed to Pod::Usage.
now($format)
Returns the current datetime as a string. $formatcan be any "strftime" format. There are also 2 builtin formats, "iso_date_time" and "iso_date_time_millis". "iso_date_time" is equivalent to "%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%SZ". "iso_date_time_millis" is the same, but with added milliseconds.
 
    now('%Y/%m/%d');
    now('iso_date_time_millis');
    
 
The default format is "iso_date_time";
2017-10-01 perl v5.26.0