gitignore - Specifies intentionally untracked files to ignore
$HOME/.config/git/ignore, $GIT_DIR/info/exclude, .gitignore
file specifies intentionally untracked files that Git should
ignore. Files already tracked by Git are not affected; see the NOTES below for
Each line in a gitignore
file specifies a pattern. When deciding whether
to ignore a path, Git normally checks gitignore
patterns from multiple
sources, with the following order of precedence, from highest to lowest
(within one level of precedence, the last matching pattern decides the
•Patterns read from the command line
for those commands that support them.
•Patterns read from a .gitignore
file in the same directory as the path, or in any parent directory, with
patterns in the higher level files (up to the toplevel of the work tree) being
overridden by those in lower level files down to the directory containing the
file. These patterns match relative to the location of the .gitignore
file. A project normally includes such .gitignore files in its
repository, containing patterns for files generated as part of the project
•Patterns read from
•Patterns read from the file specified
by the configuration variable core.excludesFile.
Which file to place a pattern in depends on how the pattern is meant to be used.
•Patterns which should be
version-controlled and distributed to other repositories via clone (i.e.,
files that all developers will want to ignore) should go into a
•Patterns which are specific to a
particular repository but which do not need to be shared with other related
repositories (e.g., auxiliary files that live inside the repository but are
specific to one user’s workflow) should go into the
•Patterns which a user wants Git to
ignore in all situations (e.g., backup or temporary files generated by the
user’s editor of choice) generally go into a file specified by
core.excludesFile in the user’s ~/.gitconfig. Its default
value is $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/ignore. If $XDG_CONFIG_HOME is either not set or
empty, $HOME/.config/git/ignore is used instead.
The underlying Git plumbing tools, such as git ls-files
, read gitignore
patterns specified by command-line
options, or from files specified by command-line options. Higher-level Git
tools, such as git status
and git add
, use patterns from the
sources specified above.
•A blank line matches no files, so it
can serve as a separator for readability.
•A line starting with # serves as a
comment. Put a backslash (" \") in front of the first hash
for patterns that begin with a hash.
•Trailing spaces are ignored unless
they are quoted with backslash (" \").
•An optional prefix
"!" which negates the pattern; any matching file excluded by
a previous pattern will become included again. It is not possible to
re-include a file if a parent directory of that file is excluded. Git
doesn’t list excluded directories for performance reasons, so any
patterns on contained files have no effect, no matter where they are defined.
Put a backslash (" \") in front of the first
"!" for patterns that begin with a literal "
!", for example, " \!important!.txt".
•If the pattern ends with a slash, it
is removed for the purpose of the following description, but it would only
find a match with a directory. In other words, foo/ will match a
directory foo and paths underneath it, but will not match a regular
file or a symbolic link foo (this is consistent with the way how
pathspec works in general in Git).
•If the pattern does not contain a
slash /, Git treats it as a shell glob pattern and checks for a match
against the pathname relative to the location of the .gitignore file
(relative to the toplevel of the work tree if not from a .gitignore
•Otherwise, Git treats the pattern as a
shell glob suitable for consumption by fnmatch(3) with the FNM_PATHNAME flag:
wildcards in the pattern will not match a / in the pathname. For example,
"Documentation/*.html" matches "Documentation/git.html"
but not "Documentation/ppc/ppc.html" or
•A leading slash matches the beginning
of the pathname. For example, "/*.c" matches "cat-file.c"
but not "mozilla-sha1/sha1.c".
Two consecutive asterisks (" **
") in patterns matched against
full pathname may have special meaning:
•A leading "**"
followed by a slash means match in all directories. For example, "
**/foo" matches file or directory " foo"
anywhere, the same as pattern " foo".
"**/foo/bar" matches file or directory "
bar" anywhere that is directly under directory "
•A trailing "/**"
matches everything inside. For example, " abc/**" matches all
files inside directory " abc", relative to the location of
the .gitignore file, with infinite depth.
•A slash followed by two consecutive
asterisks then a slash matches zero or more directories. For example, "
a/**/b" matches "a/b", "a/x/b",
" a/x/y/b" and so on.
•Other consecutive asterisks are
The purpose of gitignore files is to ensure that certain files not tracked by
Git remain untracked.
To stop tracking a file that is currently tracked, use git rm --cached
$ git status
# Untracked files:
$ cat .git/info/exclude
# ignore objects and archives, anywhere in the tree.
$ cat Documentation/.gitignore
# ignore generated html files,
# except foo.html which is maintained by hand
$ git status
# Untracked files:
$ cat .gitignore
$ ls arch/foo/kernel/vm*
$ echo '!/vmlinux*' >arch/foo/kernel/.gitignore
The second .gitignore prevents Git from ignoring
Example to exclude everything except a specific directory foo/bar
- without the slash, the wildcard would also exclude everything
$ cat .gitignore
# exclude everything except directory foo/bar
Part of the git