maildir - directory for incoming mail messages
is a structure for directories of incoming mail messages. It
solves the reliability problems that plague mbox
files and mh
A machine may crash while it is delivering a message. For both mbox
folders this means that the message will be silently truncated.
Even worse: for mbox
format, if the message is truncated in the middle
of a line, it will be silently joined to the next message. The mail transport
agent will try again later to deliver the message, but it is unacceptable that
a corrupted message should show up at all. In maildir
, every message is
guaranteed complete upon delivery.
A machine may have two programs simultaneously delivering mail to the same user.
formats require the programs to update a single
central file. If the programs do not use some locking mechanism, the central
file will be corrupted. There are several mbox
mechanisms, none of which work portably and reliably. In contrast, in
, no locks are ever necessary. Different delivery processes
never touch the same file.
A user may try to delete messages from his mailbox at the same moment that the
machine delivers a new message. For mbox
user's mail-reading program must know what locking mechanism the mail-delivery
programs use. In contrast, in maildir
, any delivered message can be
safely updated or deleted by a mail-reading program.
Many sites use Sun's Network Failure System (NFS),
presumably because the operating system vendor does not offer
anything else. NFS exacerbates all of the above problems.
Some NFS implementations don't provide any
mechanism. With mbox
formats, if two machines deliver
mail to the same user, or if a user reads mail anywhere except the delivery
machine, the user's mail is at risk. maildir
works without trouble over
A directory in maildir
format has three subdirectories, all on the same
, and cur
Each file in new
is a newly delivered mail message. The modification time
of the file is the delivery date of the message. The message is delivered
an extra UUCP-style From_
quoting, and without
an extra blank line at the end.
The message is normally in RFC 822 format, starting with a Return-Path
line and a Delivered-To
line, but it could contain arbitrary binary
data. It might not even end with a newline.
Files in cur
are just like files in new
. The big difference is
that files in cur
are no longer new mail: they have been seen by the
user's mail-reading program.
directory is used to ensure reliable delivery, as discussed here.
A program delivers a mail message in six steps. First, it chdir()s
to the maildir
directory. Second, it stat()s
tmp/ time.pid.host, where time
number of seconds since the beginning of 1970 GMT, pid
is the program's
process ID, and host
is the host name. Third, if stat()
anything other than ENOENT, the program sleeps for two seconds, updates
, and tries the stat()
again, a limited number of times.
Fourth, the program creates tmp/time.pid.host. Fifth,
the program NFS-writes
the message to the file. Sixth, the program
s the file to new/time.pid.host. At that
instant the message has been successfully delivered.
The delivery program is required to start a 24-hour timer before creating
tmp/ time.pid.host, and to abort the delivery
if the timer expires. Upon error, timeout, or normal completion,
the delivery program may attempt to unlink()
means (1) as usual, checking the number of bytes returned
from each write()
call; (2) calling fsync()
and checking its
return value; (3) calling close()
and checking its return value.
(Standard NFS implementations handle fsync()
incorrectly but make up
for it by abusing close()
A mail reader operates as follows.
It looks through the new
directory for new messages. Say there is a new
message, new/unique. The reader may freely display the
contents of new/unique, delete
new/unique, or rename new/unique
as cur/unique:info. See
for the meaning of
The reader is also expected to look through the tmp
directory and to
clean up any old files found there. A file in tmp
may be safely removed
if it has not been accessed in 36 hours.
It is a good idea for readers to skip all filenames in new
starting with a dot. Other than this, readers should not attempt to parse
Mail readers supporting maildir
use the MAILDIR
variable as the name of the user's primary mail directory.