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prol - define the rules for symbolic to real layout translation

PROL(5) RDS FILE FORMATS PROL(5)

NAME

prol - define the rules for symbolic to real layout translation
 
See the file man1/alc_origin.1.
 

DESCRIPTION

This file describes the rules used by the mbk(1) to rds translator. In the following file, symbolic layout objects are refered as mbk(1) objects, mbk(1) being the internal data structure that supports symbolic representation. On the other hand, rds is a data structure describing mainly rectangles, and is therefore used for real layout representation.
Some syntaxic remarques on the way to write the file follow. The case of identifiers is not significant, so NDIF is equivalent to NdiF. Comments are allowed anywhere in the file, using the sharp (#) as start of comment, and newline as end of comment. A line begining with a sharp will be ignored, and a line containing a sharp will be read up to the character preeceding it. A newline can be escaped using the backslash () followed by the newline. If some character, spaces or tabs for example, follow the backslash, chances are that a syntax error will be issued.
First, some important process parameters are needed, the physical grid step, that is the least common multiple of all the technologies values in terms of layout distances, and the lambda, computed from a careful observation of the process design rules.
 
Then, a set of tables is needed, to describe how to translate a symbolic object, belonging to the mbk(1) world, and a set of layout rectangles, in rds.
 
Each table has a special meaning, and its parametrization exend beeing not full, some borders are to be evocated. Several type of table exists indeed. Some are needed for object translation, others for post treatment parametrization, others to define cif or gds identifiers regarding rds ones.
 
Many things seem to be parametrizable, but in fact, mostly, if not only, numbers, names in cif and gds translation tables, and boolean value in post treatement may be changed without problems.
For any table, if some layer is not applicable, it can simply be omitted. The default action is `do nothing', or use a value of 0.0 for all entries.

LAYERS AND PATTERNS

Since the goal of this file is to allow translation from mbk(1) to rds, the meaning of the layers in both representation shall be known.
 
Mbk layers
NWELL
minimum width 4 ; N-well.
PWELL
minimum width 4 ; P-well.
NTIE
minimum width 2 ; N diffusion for polarisation.
PTIE
minimum width 2 ; P diffusion for polarisation.
NDIF
minimum width 2 ; N diffusion for transistor.
PDIF
minimum width 2 ; P diffusion for transistor.
NTRANS
minimum width 1 (gate width) ; N transistor.
PTRANS
minimum width 1 (gate width) ; P transistor.
POLY
minimum width 1 ; polysilicon, not transistor gate.
ALU1
minimum width 1 ; first level of metal.
ALU2
minimum width 2 ; second level of metal.
ALU3
minimum width 3 ; third level of metal (unused).
TPOLY
minimum width 1 ; through route for POLY.
TALU1
minimum width 1 ; through route for ALU1.
TALU2
minimum width 2 ; through route for ALU2.
TALU3
minimum width 3 ; through route for ALU3 (unused).
Mbk patterns
CONT_POLY
cut pattern from ALU1 to POLY
CONT_VIA
cut pattern from ALU1 to ALU2
CONT_VIA2
cut pattern from ALU2 to ALU3
CONT_DIF_N
cut pattern from ALU1 to NDIF
CONT_DIF_P
cut pattern from ALU1 to PDIF
CONT_BODY_N
cut pattern from ALU1 to NTIE
CONT_BODY_P
cut pattern from ALU1 to PTIE
C_X_N
corner primitive for L or S shaped N transistor
C_X_P
corner primitive for L or S shaped P transistor
Rds layers
RDS_NWELL
N-well (or N-tub), bulk for P transistors.
RDS_PWELL
P-well (or P-tub), bulk for N transistors.
RDS_NDIF
use for symbolic extractor as equivalent of NDIF.
RDS_PDIF
use for symbolic extractor as equivalent of PDIF.
RDS_NTIE
use for symbolic extractor as equivalent of NTIE.
RDS_PTIE
use for symbolic extractor as equivalent of PTIE.
RDS_POLY
polysillicon run, for cell internal wirering.
RDS_GATE
transistor polysillicon, for gate.
RDS_TPOLY
polysillicon feed through. Indicate to a router that a track is free of polysillicon.
RDS_CONT
hole in the isolating layer between polysillicon or active area and first metal level.
RDS_ALU1
first metal level run.
RDS_TALU1
first metal level feed through. Indicates to a router that a track is free of first metal level.
RDS_VIA1
hole in the isolating layer between first metal level and second metal level.
RDS_ALU2
second metal level run.
RDS_TALU2
second metal level feed through. Indicate to a router that a track is free of second metal level.
RDS_VIA2
hole in the isolating layer between second metal level and third metal level.
RDS_ALU3
third metal level run.
RDS_TALU3
third metal level feed through. Indicate to a router that a track is free of third metal level.
RDS_ALU4
fourth metal. (Used only for GaAs designs.)
RDS_VIA3
hole in the isolating layer between third metal level and fourth metal level. (Used only for GaAs designs.)
RDS_ACTIV
active area dropped in N or P implant to build transistors.
RDS_NIMP
implant area, (sometime known as N select), for N transistors.
RDS_PIMP
implant area, (sometime known as P select), for P transistors.
RDS_CPAS
passivation, used in pads.
RDS_USER0
user defined purpose layer. (May be used for DRC logical operations.)
RDS_USER1
user defined purpose layer. (May be used for DRC logical operations.)
RDS_USER2
user defined purpose layer. (May be used for DRC logical operations.)
RDS_REF
virtual layer for the representation of symbolic references
RDS_ABOX
virtual layer needed to indicate the abutment box of a model.
RDS_DEFAULT
default layer, shall never appear anywhere.

FILE DESCRIPTION

The following lines describe the file, entry by entry, specifying what is expected.
Physical grid
DEFINE PHYSICAL_GRID .5
 
This statement defines the minimum grid spacing enforced by the foundry.
Lambda
DEFINE LAMBDA 1
 
This defines the value of the lambda in microns. This value, like any other one in the rest of the file must be a multiple of the PHYSICAL_GRID.
Segment translation table
TABLE MBK_TO_RDS_SEGMENT
 
This table contains all the informations needed to translate a symbolic segment of a given layer onto one, two or three real rectangles of specified layers. An example of this table is given below, with values needed for a technology where one lambda is equal to 1.05 μ and the design grid is set to 0.15 microns.
TABLE MBK_TO_RDS_SEGMENT
NWELL RDS_NWELL VW 3.15 6.30 0.0 ALL NDIF RDS_ACTIV VW 0.60 -0.90 0.0 ALL \ RDS_NIMP VW 2.10 2.10 0.0 ALL PDIF RDS_ACTIV VW 0.60 -0.90 0.0 ALL \ RDS_PIMP VW 2.10 2.10 0.0 ALL NTIE RDS_ACTIV VW 0.60 -0.90 0.0 ALL \ RDS_NIMP VW 1.20 0.30 0.0 ALL PTIE RDS_ACTIV VW 0.60 -0.90 0.0 ALL \ RDS_PIMP VW 1.20 0.30 0.0 ALL NTRANS RDS_GATE VW 0.00 0.15 0.0 ALL \ RDS_ACTIV VW -1.50 4.35 0.0 ALL \ RDS_NIMP VW 0.00 7.35 0.0 ALL PTRANS RDS_GATE VW 0.00 0.15 0.0 ALL \ RDS_ACTIV VW -1.50 4.35 0.0 ALL \ RDS_PIMP VW 0.00 7.35 0.0 ALL POLY RDS_POLY VW 0.60 0.15 0.0 ALL ALU1 RDS_ALU1 VW 0.90 0.75 0.0 ALL ALU2 RDS_ALU2 VW 0.90 -0.30 0.0 ALL TPOLY RDS_TPOLY VW 0.60 0.15 0.0 ALL TALU1 RDS_TALU1 VW 0.90 0.75 0.0 ALL TALU2 RDS_TALU2 VW 0.90 -0.30 0.0 ALL
END
The first column is the mbk(1) layer name to be translated, then there one or more groups of 6 columns each. For each physical rectangle, there are 3 parameters :
 
- rds layer name
 
- One of VW, LCW, RCW that indicates the `type' of segment to be generated
 
- physical length extension: DLR
 
- physical width oversize: DWR
 
- offset from symbolic axis: OFFSET
 
- tools for which the generated rectangle is applicable: ALL, DRC (for the symbolic design rule checker, see druc(1)), EXT (for the symbolic extractor, see lynx(1)) These parameters are meant regarding the symbolic segment.
Connectors translation table
TABLE MBK_TO_RDS_CONNECTOR
 
This table contains all the informations needed to translate a symbolic connector of a given layer onto one single real rectangle.
 
An example of this table is given below, with values needed for a technology where one lambda is equal to 1.05 μ and the design grid is set to 0.15 micron.
TABLE MBK_TO_RDS_CONNECTOR
POLY RDS_POLY 0.6 0.15 ALU1 RDS_ALU1 0.9 0.75 ALU2 RDS_ALU2 0.9 -0.3
END
One symbolic connector is translated into one physical rectangle using 3 parameters :
 
- rds layer name
 
- physical width oversize: DWR
 
- physical extension on each side of the abutment box: DER
 
It is discouraged to use active or well layers as connectors while designing.
Vias translation table
TABLE MBK_TO_RDS_VIA
 
This table contains all the informations needed to translate a symbolic via of a given layer onto one to four real rectangles of user specified layers. An example of this table is given below, with values needed for a technology where one lambda is equal to 1.05 μ and the design grid is set to 0.15 micron.
TABLE MBK_TO_RDS_VIA
CONT_BODY_N RDS_ALU1 3 RDS_CONT 1.5 RDS_ACTIV 3.3 RDS_NIMP 4.5 CONT_BODY_P RDS_ALU1 3 RDS_CONT 1.5 RDS_ACTIV 3.3 RDS_PIMP 4.5 CONT_DIF_N RDS_ALU1 3 RDS_CONT 1.5 RDS_ACTIV 3.3 RDS_NIMP 6.3 CONT_DIF_P RDS_ALU1 3 RDS_CONT 1.5 RDS_ACTIV 3.3 RDS_PIMP 6.3 CONT_POLY RDS_ALU1 3 RDS_CONT 1.5 RDS_POLY 3 CONT_VIA RDS_ALU1 3 RDS_VIA1 1.5 RDS_ALU2 3 CONT_VIA2 C_X_N RDS_GATE 1.2 RDS_ACTIV 5.4 RDS_NIMP 8.4 C_X_P RDS_GATE 1.2 RDS_ACTIV 5.4 RDS_PIMP 8.4
END
 
This table describes how to translate one symbolic via, to 2, 3 or 4 physical rectangles. The table is defined as follow : The first column is the mbk(1) via name to translate, then there are 4 groups of 2 columns each, which correspond to four potential targets rds rectangles of user specified layer. In one group the first column is the rds layer name, the second one is the rds layer width. The rectangle is centered on the contact coordinates, and expands in the four direction of half the given width value.
Denotching values table
TABLE S2R_OVERSIZE_DENOTCH
 
This table contains the oversize value needed to erase notches. All the rectangles of the same rds layer are oversized by this value and then merged alltogether and undersized by the same value. An example of this table is given below.
TABLE S2R_OVERSIZE_DENOTCH
RDS_NWELL 3.00 RDS_POLY 0.75 RDS_GATE 0.75 RDS_ALU1 0.75 RDS_ALU2 0.75 RDS_ACTIV 1.05 RDS_NIMP 2.55 RDS_PIMP 2.55
END
For some rds layers, like RDS_NWELL, RDS_NIMP and RDS_PIMP, two rectangles distant from less or equal the minimun spacing design rule must be merged in a single one. In this case, the oversize value is equal to the minimum spacing rule between two edges of the same layer divided by 2.
 
Some other rds layers, like RDS_ALU1, ..., must not be merged. In this case, the oversize value is equal to the minimum spacing rule between two edges of the same layer divided by 2, minus the physical grid.
 
Some layers never create notch, such as RDS_VIA1 or RDS_CONT, so the oversize value is null.
Ring width
TABLE S2R_BLOC_RING_WIDTH
 
s2r must merge segments to erase notches even if those segments are in two different hierarchical level blocs, for example, two blocs abuted side to side. So, it must be able to fetch segments inside blocs. It is not needed to flatten the entire bloc, only a ring is necessary. The ring is computed from the abutment box edges or from the envelop edges of the overlapping blocs.
 
An example of this table is given below.
TABLE S2R_BLOC_RING_WIDTH
RDS_NWELL 6 RDS_POLY 1.8 RDS_GATE 1.8 RDS_ALU1 1.8 RDS_ALU2 1.8 RDS_ACTIV 2.4 RDS_NIMP 1.8 RDS_PIMP 1.8
END
 
The normal ring width is the minimum spacing design rule between two segments of the same rds layer.
 
A zero means that no ring is wanted for that rds layer.
Minimum real layer width design rule
TABLE S2R_MINIMUM_LAYER_WIDTH
 
This table contains the minimum width of each rds layer. It is used by s2r to avoid creating rectangles below the minimum required, during the merge operation.
TABLE S2R_MINIMUM_LAYER_WIDTH
  RDS_NWELL   6
  RDS_POLY    1.2
  RDS_GATE    1.2
  RDS_ALU1    1.8
  RDS_ALU2    1.8
  RDS_ACTIV   1.2
  RDS_NIMP    2.7
  RDS_PIMP    2.7
END
A zero can be specified, when it is sure that this layer is not to be merged, because not treated by s2r.
Post treatment configuration table
TABLE S2R_POST_TREAT
 
This table indicates to s2r which rds layers must be post-processed. Precicely if a layer is only to be be translated, or translated and then post-processed. Translated means translate and fit from symbolic to real, and postreated that it should also be merged with its neighbours. For example, it's not necesary to merge cut layers such as RDS_CONT.
TABLE S2R_POST_TREAT
RDS_NWELL TREAT NULL RDS_PWELL NOTREAT NULL RDS_NDIF NOTREAT NULL RDS_PDIF NOTREAT NULL RDS_NTIE NOTREAT NULL RDS_PTIE NOTREAT NULL RDS_POLY TREAT NULL RDS_GATE TREAT NULL RDS_TPOLY NOTREAT NULL RDS_CONT NOTREAT NULL RDS_ALU1 TREAT NULL RDS_TALU1 NOTREAT NULL RDS_VIA1 NOTREAT NULL RDS_ALU2 TREAT NULL RDS_TALU2 NOTREAT NULL RDS_VIA2 NOTREAT NULL RDS_ALU3 NOTREAT NULL RDS_TALU3 NOTREAT NULL RDS_ACTIV TREAT NULL RDS_NIMP TREAT RDS_PIMP RDS_PIMP TREAT RDS_NIMP RDS_REF NOTREAT NULL RDS_ABOX NOTREAT NULL
END
If set to NOTREAT, the first parameter indicates a translation. If set to TREAT, then the layer is translated and then post-treated
 
To post-process creates problems with the implantation layers. It is possible to have a good symbolic layout (no symbolic design rule errors), and have a resulting layout with DRC violations, created by a poor post-processing. It is due to the fact that these layers do not exist in symbolic, so it is not possible to apply them drc verifications. If two rectangles of these layers are too close (less than a given value), they must be merged. Generally, there is no problem, but when corners are too near it is impossible to merge with the classical algorithm, expand, merge, then shrink.
 
Rectangles, known as scotches, are created to merge anyway, like this :
+--------+            +--------+           +-----+--+
|////////|            |////////|           |/////|//|
|//+--+//|            |//+--+//|           |//+--|//|
|//|  |//|  gives ->  |//|  |//|     or -> |//|  |//|
|//+--+//|            +-----------+        |//+--|//|
|////////|            |///////////|        |/////|//|
+--------+            +--------+//|        +-----|//|     
    ^    +--------+            |//|-----+        |//+--------+
    |    |////////|            |//|/////|        |///////////|
    o--->|//+--+//|            |//|--+//|        +-----------+
    |    |//|  |//|            |//|  |//|           |//|  |//|
implant  |//+--+//|            |//|--+//|           |//|--+//|
 areas   |////////|            |//|/////|           |//|/////|
         +--------+            +--+-----+           +--+-----+
A N implantation layer should not overlap a P implantation one. We say that P implantations and N implantations are complementary. A scotch will not be created if it intersects with any of the rectangles of the complementary layers.
 
If a record contains in the second field a rds layer different from NULL, it indicates the complementary layer. This implies that if it is a layer that might need scotches the algorithm will try not to intersect with it when creating scotches.
Extraction graph table
TABLE LYNX_GRAPH
 
This table gives the connexion graph between the rds layers. For each layer, the list of the connectable layers is written. Up to now, the extractor works only on translated symbolic layout.
TABLE LYNX_GRAPH
RDS_NDIF RDS_CONT RDS_NDIF RDS_PDIF RDS_CONT RDS_PDIF RDS_NTIE RDS_CONT RDS_NTIE RDS_PTIE RDS_CONT RDS_PTIE RDS_POLY RDS_CONT RDS_GATE RDS_POLY RDS_GATE RDS_POLY RDS_GATE RDS_CONT RDS_PDIF RDS_NDIF RDS_POLY RDS_PTIE RDS_NTIE RDS_ALU1 RDS_CONT RDS_ALU1 RDS_CONT RDS_VIA1 RDS_ALU1 RDS_REF RDS_REF RDS_CONT RDS_VIA1 RDS_ALU1 RDS_REF RDS_VIA1 RDS_ALU1 RDS_ALU2 RDS_VIA1 RDS_ALU2 RDS_VIA1 RDS_VIA2 RDS_ALU2 RDS_VIA2 RDS_ALU2 RDS_ALU3 RDS_VIA2 RDS_ALU3 RDS_VIA2 RDS_ALU3
END
Extraction capacitance table
TABLE LYNX_CAPA
 
This table gives the capacitance in picofarad per square lambda of each layer. The extractor computes only substrat capacitances. The capacitances associated with gate or drain or sources are not computed. On the other hand the transistor sizes (area, perimeter) are computed. (This is to ensure compatibility with Spice).
TABLE LYNX_CAPA
RDS_POLY 1.00e-04 RDS_ALU1 0.50e-04 RDS_ALU2 0.25e-04 END
Cif translation table
TABLE CIF_LAYER
 
This table gives the equivalence between internal layers and their representation in the cif file format. A table may look like that (for MOSIS layers):
TABLE CIF_LAYER
RDS_NWELL CWN RDS_PWELL CWP RDS_ACTIV CAA RDS_NIMP CSN RDS_PIMP CSP RDS_POLY CPG RDS_GATE CPG RDS_CONT CCA RDS_ALU1 CMF RDS_VIA1 CVA RDS_ALU2 CMS
END
Gds translation table
TABLE GDS_LAYER
 
This table gives the equivalence between internal layers and there representation in the gds file. A table may look like that (for CMP layers):
TABLE GDS_LAYER
RDS_NWELL 1 RDS_POLY 11 RDS_GATE 11 RDS_CONT 16 RDS_ALU1 17 RDS_VIA1 18 RDS_ALU2 19 RDS_ACTIV 2 RDS_NIMP 12 RDS_PIMP 14 RDS_CPAS 20
END

SEE ALSO

Insights on the symbolic to real translation process are available in the file mapping.ps
 
 
See the file man1/alc_bug_report.1.
 
 
October 1, 1997 ASIM/LIP6