apparmor_parser - loads AppArmor profiles into the kernel
apparmor_parser [options] <command> [profiles]...
apparmor_parser [options] <command>
apparmor_parser [-hv] [--help] [--version]
is used as a general tool to compile, and manage AppArmor
policy, including loading new apparmor.d
(5) profiles into the Linux
AppArmor profiles restrict the operations available to processes.
are loaded into the Linux kernel by the
program. The profiles
may be specified by file
name or a directory name containing a set of profiles. If a directory is
specified then the apparmor_parser
will try to do a profile load for
each file in the directory that is not a dot file, or explicitly black listed
(*.dpkg-new, *.dpkg-old, *.dpkg-dist, *-dpkg-bak, *.repnew, *.rpmsave, *orig,
*.rej, *~). The apparmor_parser
will fall back to taking input from
standard input if a profile or directory is not supplied.
The input supplied to apparmor_parser
should be in the format described
The command set is broken into four subcategories.
- unprivileged commands
- Commands that don't require any privilege and don't operate
- unprivileged profile commands
- Commands that operate on a profile either specified on the
command line or read from stdin if no profile was specified.
- privileged commands
- Commands that require the MAC_ADMIN capability within the
affected AppArmor namespace to load policy into the kernel or filesystem
write permissions to update the affected privileged files (cache
- privileged profile commands
- Commands that require privilege and operate on
- -V, --version
- Print the version number and exit.
- -h, --help
- Give a quick reference guide.
- -N, --names
- Produce a list of policies from a given set of profiles
- -p, --preprocess
- Apply preprocessing to the input profile(s) by flattening
includes into the output profile and dump to stdout.
- -S, --stdout
- Writes a binary (cached) profile to stdout (implies -K and
- -o file, --ofile file
- Writes a binary (cached) profile to the specified file
(implies -K and -T)
- Unconditionally clear out cached profiles.
- -a, --add
- Insert the AppArmor definitions given into the kernel. This
is the default action. This gives an error message if a AppArmor
definition by the same name already exists in the kernel, or if the parser
doesn't understand its input. It reports when an addition succeeded.
- -r, --replace
- This flag is required if an AppArmor definition by the same
name already exists in the kernel; used to replace the definition already
in the kernel with the definition given on standard input.
- -R, --remove
- This flag is used to remove an AppArmor definition already
in the kernel. Note that it still requires a complete AppArmor definition
as described in apparmor.d(5) even though the contents of the
definition aren't used.
- -B, --binary
- Treat the profile files specified on the command line (or
stdin if none specified) as binary cache files, produced with the -S or -o
options, and load to the kernel as specified by -a, -r, and -R (implies -K
- -C, --Complain
- Force the profile to load in complain mode.
- -b n, --base n
- Set the base directory for resolving #include directives
defined as relative paths.
- -I n, --Include n
- Add element n to the search path when resolving #include
directives defined as an absolute paths.
- -f n, --subdomainfs n
- Set the location of the apparmor security filesystem
(default is "/sys/kernel/security/apparmor").
- -M n, --features-file n
- Use the features file located at path "n"
(default is /etc/apparmor.d/cache/.features). If the --cache-loc option is
present, the ".features" file in the specified cache directory
- -m n, --match-string n
- Only use match features "n".
- -n n, --namespace-string n
- Force a profile to load in the namespace
- -X, --readimpliesX
- In the case of profiles that are loading on systems were
READ_IMPLIES_EXEC is set in the kernel for a given process, load the
profile so that any "r" flags are processed as
- -k, --show-cache
- Report the cache processing (hit/miss details) when loading
or saving cached profiles.
- -K, --skip-cache
- Perform no caching at all: disables -W, implies -T.
- -T, --skip-read-cache
- By default, if a profile's cache is found in the location
specified by --cache-loc and the timestamp is newer than the profile, it
will be loaded from the cache. This option disables this cache loading
- -W, --write-cache
- Write out cached profiles to the location specified in
--cache-loc. Off by default. In cases where abstractions have been
changed, and the parser is running with "--replace", it may make
sense to also use "--skip-read-cache" with the
- Skip updating the cache if it contains cached profiles in a
bad or inconsistent state
- -L, --cache-loc
- Set the location of the cache directory. If not specified
the cache location defaults to /etc/apparmor.d/cache
- -Q, --skip-kernel-load
- Perform all actions except the actual loading of a profile
into the kernel. This is useful for testing profile generation, caching,
etc, without making changes to the running kernel profiles.
This also removes the need for privilege to execute the commands that manage
policy in the kernel
- -q, --quiet
- Do not report on the profiles as they are loaded, and not
- -v, --verbose
- Report on the profiles as they are loaded, and show
- Enable various warnings during policy compilation. A single
dump flag can be specified per --warn option, but the --warn flag can be
passed multiple times.
apparmor_parser --warn=rules-not-enforced ...
Use --help=warn to see a full list of which warn flags are supported.
- -d, --debug
- Given once, only checks the profiles to ensure syntactic
correctness. Given twice, dumps its interpretation of the profile for
- -D n, --dump=n
- Debug flag for dumping various structures and passes of
policy compilation. A single dump flag can be specified per --dump option,
but the dump flag can be passed multiple times. Note progress flags tend
to also imply the matching stats flag.
apparmor_parser --dump=dfa-stats --dump=trans-stats <file>
Use --help=dump to see a full list of which dump flags are supported
- -j n, --jobs=n
- Set the number of jobs used to compile the specified
policy. Where n can be
# - a specific number of jobs
auto - the # of cpus in the in the system
x# - # * number of cpus
-j8 OR --jobs=8 allows for 8 parallel jobs
-jauto OR --jobs=auto sets the jobs to the # of cpus
-jx4 OR --jobs=x4 sets the jobs to # of cpus * 4
-jx1 is equivalent to -jauto
The default value is the number of cpus in the system.
- --max-jobs n
- Set a hard cap on the value that can be specified by the
--jobs flag. It takes the same set of options available to the --jobs
option, and defaults to 8*cpus
- -O n, --optimize=n
- Set the optimization flags used by policy compilation. A
single optimization flag can be toggled per -O option, but the optimize
flag can be passed multiple times. Turning off some phases of the
optimization can make it so that policy can't complete compilation due to
size constraints (it is entirely possible to create a dfa with millions of
states that will take days or longer to compile).
Note: The parser is set to use a balanced default set of flags, that will
result in reasonable compression but not take excessive amounts of time to
Use --help=optimize to see a full list of which optimization flags are
- --abort-on-error Abort processing of profiles on the first
error encountered, otherwise the parser will continue to try to compile
other profiles if specified.
- Note: If an error is encountered while processing profiles
the last error encountered will be used to set the exit code.
- --skip-bad-cache-rebuild The default behavior of the parser
is to check if a cached version of a profile exists and if it does it
attempt to load it into the kernel. If that load is rejected, then the
parser will attempt to rebuild the cache file, and load again.
- This option tells the parser to not attempt to rebuild the
cache on failure, instead the parser continues on with processing the
An optional config file /etc/apparmor/parser.conf can be used to specify the
default options for the parser, which then can be overridden using the command
The config file ignores leading whitespace and treats lines that begin with # as
comments. Config options are specified one per line using the same format as
the longform command line options (without the preceding --).
As with the command line some options accumulate and others override, ie. when
there are conflicting versions of switch the last option is the one chosen.
would result in Optimize=minimize being set.
The Include, Dump, and Optimize options accululate except for the inversion
option (no-X vs. X), and a couple options that work by setting/clearing
multiple options (compress-small). In that case the option will override the
flags it sets but will may accumulate with others.
All other options override previously set values.
If you find any bugs, please report them at
(2), and <http://wiki.apparmor.net>.