— map a
utility compares the file hierarchy
rooted in the current directory against a specification read from the standard
input. Messages are written to the standard output for any files whose
characteristics do not match the specifications, or which are missing from
either the file hierarchy or the specification.
The options are as follows:
- Follow all symbolic links in the file hierarchy.
- Do not follow symbolic links in the file hierarchy, instead
consider the symbolic link itself in any comparisons. This is the
- Modify the owner, group, permissions, and modification time
of existing files to match the specification and create any missing
directories or symbolic links. User, group and permissions must all be
specified for missing directories to be created. Corrected mismatches are
not considered errors.
- Print a specification for the file hierarchy to the
- Ignore everything except directory type files.
- Do not complain about files that are in the file hierarchy,
but not in the specification.
- Indent the output 4 spaces each time a directory level is
descended when creating a specification with the
-c option. This does not affect either the
/set statements or the comment before each directory. It does however
affect the comment before the close of each directory.
- Do not emit pathname comments when creating a
specification. Normally a comment is emitted before each directory and
before the close of that directory when using the
- Quiet mode. Do not complain when a “missing”
directory cannot be created because it already exists. This occurs when
the directory is a symbolic link.
- Remove any files in the file hierarchy that are not
described in the specification.
- Same as -U except a status of
2 is returned if the file hierarchy did not match the specification.
- Make some errors non-fatal warnings.
- Do not descend below mount points in the file
- Read the specification from
file, instead of from the standard input.
If this option is specified twice, the two specifications are compared to
each other rather than to the file hierarchy. The specifications will be
sorted like output generated using -c. The
output format in this case is somewhat remniscent of
comm(1), having "in first spec
only", "in second spec only", and "different"
columns, prefixed by zero, one and two TAB characters respectively. Each
entry in the "different" column occupies two lines, one from
- Add the specified (whitespace or comma separated)
keywords to the current set of
- Use the ``type'' keyword plus the specified (whitespace or
comma separated) keywords instead of the
current set of keywords.
- Use the file hierarchy rooted in
path, instead of the current
- Display a single checksum to the standard error output that
represents all of the files for which the keyword
cksum was specified. The checksum is seeded
with the specified value.
- The specified file contains
fnmatch(3) patterns matching files to be
excluded from the specification, one to a line. If the pattern contains a
/’ character, it will be matched
against entire pathnames (relative to the starting directory); otherwise,
it will be matched against basenames only. No comments are allowed in the
Specifications are mostly composed of ``keywords'', i.e., strings that specify
values relating to files. No keywords have default values, and if a keyword
has no value set, no checks based on it are performed.
Currently supported keywords are as follows:
- The checksum of the file using the default algorithm
specified by the cksum(1) utility.
- The file flags as a symbolic name. See
chflags(1) for information on these names. If
no flags are to be set the string “none” may be used to
override the current default.
- Ignore any file hierarchy below this file.
- The file group as a numeric value.
- The file group as a symbolic name.
- The MD5 message digest of the file.
- The FIPS 160-1 (“SHA-1”) message digest of
- The FIPS 180-2 (“SHA-256”) message digest of
- The RIPEMD160 message digest of the file.
- The current file's permissions as a numeric (octal) or
- The number of hard links the file is expected to have.
- Make sure this file or directory exists but otherwise
ignore all attributes.
- The file is optional; do not complain about the file if it
is not in the file hierarchy.
- The file owner as a numeric value.
- The file owner as a symbolic name.
- The size, in bytes, of the file.
- The file the symbolic link is expected to reference.
- The last modification time of the file, in seconds and
nanoseconds. The value should include a period character and exactly nine
digits after the period.
- The type of the file; may be set to any one of the
- block special device
- character special device
- regular file
- symbolic link
The default set of keywords are flags
There are four types of lines in a specification.
The first type of line sets a global value for a keyword, and consists of the
string ``/set'' followed by whitespace, followed by sets of keyword/value
pairs, separated by whitespace. Keyword/value pairs consist of a keyword,
followed by an equals sign (``=''), followed by a value, without whitespace
characters. Once a keyword has been set, its value remains unchanged until
either reset or unset.
The second type of line unsets keywords and consists of the string ``/unset'',
followed by whitespace, followed by one or more keywords, separated by
The third type of line is a file specification and consists of a file name,
followed by whitespace, followed by zero or more whitespace separated
keyword/value pairs. The file name may be preceded by whitespace characters.
The file name may contain any of the standard file name matching characters
(``['', ``]'', ``?'' or ``*''), in which case files in the hierarchy will be
associated with the first pattern that they match.
Each of the keyword/value pairs consist of a keyword, followed by an equals sign
(``=''), followed by the keyword's value, without whitespace characters. These
values override, without changing, the global value of the corresponding
All paths are relative. Specifying a directory will cause subsequent files to be
searched for in that directory hierarchy. Which brings us to the last type of
line in a specification: a line containing only the string
” causes the current directory
path to ascend one level.
Empty lines and lines whose first non-whitespace character is a hash mark
(``#'') are ignored.
utility exits with a status of 0 on
success, 1 if any error occurred, and 2 if the file hierarchy did not match
the specification. A status of 2 is converted to a status of 0 if the
option is used.
- system specification directory
utility exits 0 on success,
and >0 if an error occurs.
To detect system binaries that have been ``trojan horsed'', it is recommended
that mtree -K
be run on the file systems, and a
copy of the results stored on a different machine, or, at least, in encrypted
form. The output file itself should be digested using the
utility. Then, periodically,
should be run against the on-line specifications. While it is possible for the
bad guys to change the on-line specifications to conform to their modified
binaries, it is believed to be impractical for them to create a modified
specification which has the same SHA-256 digest as the original.
can be used in combination to create directory hierarchies for distributions
and other such things; the files in /etc/mtree
were used to create almost all directories in this
To create an /etc/mtree
style BSD.*.dist file, use
utility appeared in
. The MD5 digest capability was added in
, in response to the widespread use of
programs which can spoof cksum(1)
. The SHA-1 and
RIPEMD160 digests were added in FreeBSD 4.0
, as new
attacks have demonstrated weaknesses in MD5. The SHA-256 digest was added in
. Support for file flags was added in
, and mostly comes from