slapd - Stand-alone LDAP Daemon
is the stand-alone LDAP daemon. It listens for LDAP connections on
any number of ports (default 389
), responding to the LDAP operations it
receives over these connections. slapd
is typically invoked at boot
time, usually out of /etc/rc.local
. Upon startup, slapd
forks and disassociates itself from the invoking tty. If configured in the
config file (or config directory), the slapd
process will print its
process ID (see getpid
(2)) to a .pid
file, as well as the
command line options during invocation to an .args
(5)). If the -d
flag is given, even with a zero
will not fork and disassociate from the invoking tty.
See the "OpenLDAP Administrator's Guide" for more details on
- Listen on IPv4 addresses only.
- Listen on IPv6 addresses only.
- -T tool
- Run in Tool mode. The tool argument selects whether
to run as slapadd, slapcat, slapdn, slapindex,
slappasswd, slapschema, or slaptest ( slapacl
and slapauth need the entire acl and auth option
value to be spelled out, as a is reserved to slapadd). This
option should be the first option specified when it is used; any remaining
options will be interpreted by the corresponding slap tool program,
according to the respective man pages. Note that these tool programs will
usually be symbolic links to slapd. This option is provided for
situations where symbolic links are not provided or not usable.
- -d debug-level
- Turn on debugging as defined by debug-level. If this
option is specified, even with a zero argument, slapd will not fork
or disassociate from the invoking terminal. Some general operation and
status messages are printed for any value of debug-level.
debug-level is taken as a bit string, with each bit corresponding
to a different kind of debugging information. Comma-separated arrays of
friendly names can be specified to select debugging output of the
corresponding debugging information. All the names recognized by the
loglevel directive described in slapd.conf(5) are supported.
If debug-level is ?, a list of installed debug-levels is
printed, and slapd exits.
Remember that if you turn on packet logging, packets containing bind
passwords will be output, so if you redirect the log to a logfile, that
file should be read-protected.
- -s syslog-level
- This option tells slapd at what debug-level
debugging statements should be logged to the syslog(8) facility.
The value syslog-level can be set to any value or combination
allowed by the -d switch. Slapd logs all messages selected by
syslog-level at the syslog(3) severity debug-level
DEBUG, on the unit specified with -l.
- -n service-name
- Specifies the service name for logging and other purposes.
Defaults to basename of argv, i.e.: "slapd".
- -l syslog-local-user
- Selects the local user of the syslog(8) facility.
Value can be LOCAL0, through LOCAL7, as well as USER
and DAEMON. The default is LOCAL4. However, this option is
only permitted on systems that support local users with the
syslog(8) facility. Logging to syslog(8) occurs at the
"DEBUG" severity debug-level.
- -f slapd-config-file
- Specifies the slapd configuration file. The default is
- -F slapd-config-directory
- Specifies the slapd configuration directory. The default is
/etc/ldap/slapd.d. If both -f and -F are specified,
the config file will be read and converted to config directory format and
written to the specified directory. If neither option is specified, slapd
will attempt to read the default config directory before trying to use the
default config file. If a valid config directory exists then the default
config file is ignored. All of the slap tools that use the config options
observe this same behavior.
- -h URLlist
- slapd will by default serve ldap:/// (LDAP
over TCP on all interfaces on default LDAP port). That is, it will bind
using INADDR_ANY and port 389. The -h option may be used to
specify LDAP (and other scheme) URLs to serve. For example, if slapd is
given -h "ldap://127.0.0.1:9009/ ldaps:/// ldapi:///", it
will listen on 127.0.0.1:9009 for LDAP, 0.0.0.0:636 for LDAP over TLS, and
LDAP over IPC (Unix domain sockets). Host 0.0.0.0 represents INADDR_ANY
(any interface). A space separated list of URLs is expected. The URLs
should be of the LDAP, LDAPS, or LDAPI schemes, and generally without a DN
or other optional parameters (excepting as discussed below). Support for
the latter two schemes depends on selected configuration options. Hosts
may be specified by name or IPv4 and IPv6 address formats. Ports, if
specified, must be numeric. The default ldap:// port is 389 and the
default ldaps:// port is 636.
For LDAP over IPC, name is the name of the socket, and no port
is required, nor allowed; note that directory separators must be
URL-encoded, like any other characters that are special to URLs; so the
must be specified as
The default location for the IPC socket is /var/run/ldapi
The listener permissions are indicated by "x-mod=-rwxrwxrwx",
"x-mod=0777" or "x-mod=777", where any of the
"rwx" can be "-" to suppress the related permission,
while any of the "7" can be any legal octal digit, according to
chmod(1). The listeners can take advantage of the "x-mod"
extension to apply rough limitations to operations, e.g. allow read
operations ("r", which applies to search and compare), write
operations ("w", which applies to add, delete, modify and
modrdn), and execute operations ("x", which means bind is
required). "User" permissions apply to authenticated users,
while "other" apply to anonymous users; "group"
permissions are ignored. For example,
"ldap:///????x-mod=-rw-------" means that read and write is only
allowed for authenticated connections, and bind is required for all
operations. This feature is experimental, and requires to be manually
enabled at configure time.
- -r directory
- Specifies a directory to become the root directory. slapd
will change the current working directory to this directory and then
chroot(2) to this directory. This is done after opening listeners
but before reading any configuration file or initializing any backend.
When used as a security mechanism, it should be used in conjunction with
-u and -g options.
- -u user
- slapd will run slapd with the specified user name or
id, and that user's supplementary group access list as set with
initgroups(3). The group ID is also changed to this user's gid, unless the
-g option is used to override. Note when used with -r, slapd
will use the user database in the change root environment.
Note that on some systems, running as a non-privileged user will prevent
passwd back-ends from accessing the encrypted passwords. Note also that
any shell back-ends will run as the specified non-privileged user.
- -g group
- slapd will run with the specified group name or id.
Note when used with -r, slapd will use the group database in the
change root environment.
- -c cookie
- This option provides a cookie for the syncrepl replication
consumer. The cookie is a comma separated list of name=value pairs.
Currently supported syncrepl cookie fields are rid, sid, and
csn. rid identifies a replication thread within the consumer
server and is used to find the syncrepl specification in
slapd.conf(5) or slapd-config(5) having the matching
replication identifier in its definition. The rid must be provided
in order for any other specified values to be used. sid is the
server id in a multi-master/mirror-mode configuration. csn is the
commit sequence number received by a previous synchronization and
represents the state of the consumer replica content which the syncrepl
engine will synchronize to the current provider content. In case of
mirror-mode or multi-master replication agreement, multiple
csn values, semicolon separated, can appear. Use only the
rid part to force a full reload.
- -o option[=value]
- This option provides a generic means to specify options
without the need to reserve a separate letter for them.
It supports the following options:
- When SLP support is compiled into slapd, disable it
enable it by registering at SLP DAs without specific SLP attributes (
on), or with specific SLP attributes slp-attrs that must be
an SLP attribute list definition according to the SLP standard.
registers at SLP DAs with the three SLP attributes tree, server-type and
server-version that have the values given above. This allows one to
specifically query the SLP DAs for LDAP servers holding the
production tree in case multiple trees are available.
To start slapd
and have it fork and detach from the terminal and start
serving the LDAP databases defined in the default config file, just type:
To start slapd
with an alternate configuration file, and turn on
voluminous debugging which will be printed on standard error, type:
/usr/sbin/slapd -f /var/tmp/slapd.conf -d 255
To test whether the configuration file is correct or not, type:
"OpenLDAP Administrator's Guide" (http://www.OpenLDAP.org/doc/admin/)
is developed and maintained by The OpenLDAP Project
<http://www.openldap.org/>. OpenLDAP Software
is derived from the
University of Michigan LDAP 3.3 Release.