Man pages sections > man8 > uruk


uruk(8) SYSTEM ADMINISTRATION uruk(8)

NAME


uruk - wrapper for Linux iptables, for managing firewall rules

SYNOPSIS


uruk

DESCRIPTION


uruk loads an rc file (see uruk-rc(5)) which defines network service access policy, and invokes iptables(8) to set up firewall rules implementing this policy. By default the file /etc/uruk/rc is used; one can overrule this by specifying another file in the URUK_CONFIG environment variable. Under some circumstances, it's useful to use another command for iptables; this can be achieved by setting the URUK_IPTABLES (and/or URUK_IP6TABLES) environment variables. See uruk-rc(5) for details.

QUICK SETUP GUIDE


Uruk will not "just work" out of the box. It needs manual configuration. For those of you who don't like reading lots of documentation:
 

 # cp /usr/share/doc/uruk/examples/rc \
     /etc/uruk/rc
 # vi /etc/uruk/rc
 # urukctl start


 

GETTING STARTED


Once the uruk script is installed, you want to go use it, of course. We'll give a detailed description of what to do here.
 
First, create an rc file. See uruk-rc(5) for info on how to do this. Once this file is created and installed (this script looks in /etc/uruk/rc by default), you're ready to run uruk. You might want to test your rc file by running uruk in debug mode, see uruk-rc(5). There are at least 3 ways to load your rc file. We'll first describe a low level one: using vanilla iptables.
 
Vanilla iptables
 
After editing rc, load your rules like this. First flush your current rules:
 

 # iptables -F
 # ip6tables -F


 
Then enable your rc rules
 

 # uruk


 
. Inspect the rules by doing:
 

 # iptables -L
 # ip6tables -L


 
. If you want to make these changes survive a reboot, use the init script as shipped with this package. If you'd rather write your own init script, the iptables-restore(8) and iptables-save(8) commands from the iptables package might be helpful.
 
Using the Uruk init script
 
Assumed is the Uruk init script is installed as explained in the README file. Optionally, install /etc/default/uruk (or /etc/sysconfig/uruk) and tweak it. An example file is in /usr/share/doc/uruk/examples/default (You might like to enable support for uruk-save.) Now activate uruk by doing:
 

 # urukctl start


 
Now your pre-uruk iptables rules (if any) are saved as the "inactive" ruleset. While executing urukctl start, your box is open during a short while. If you don't like this, read below about uruk-save.
 
When rebooting, everything will be fine: /etc/init.d/uruk stores state in /var/lib/uruk/iptables, using iptables-save(8), which comes with Linux iptables.
 
Using Debian ifupdown
 
In case you have just one network interface which should get protected, you could use interfaces(5) from the Debian ifupdown package instead of the init script. Suppose you'd like to protect ppp0, and would like not to interfere with traffic on eth0: your other network interface. First write an rc file. Be sure it features
 

 interfaces_unprotect="lo eth0"


 
Then run:
 

 # mkdir -p /var/lib/uruk/iptables
# iptables -F
# iptables-save -c > /var/lib/uruk/iptables/down # uruk # iptables-save -c > /var/lib/uruk/iptables/up


 
Add
 

 pre-up iptables-restore < /var/lib/uruk/iptables/up
 post-down iptables-restore < /var/lib/uruk/iptables/down


 
to your interfaces stanza, in your /etc/network/interfaces .
 
Similar tricks might be possible on GNU/Linux systems from other distributions. The author is interested.

LOADING A NEW rc FILE


Need to change your rules?
 
Using the Uruk init script
 
Do
 

 # vi /etc/uruk/rc
 # urukctl force-reload


 
While executing urukctl force-reload, your box is open during a short while. If you don't like this, read below about uruk-save.

THE GORY DETAILS: uruk INTERNALS


The uruk script works like (and looks like) the list of statements below. Of course, take a look at /sbin/uruk for the final word on the workings.
 
 

1
 
rc is sourced as a shell script
 

2
 
Traffic on $interfaces_unprotect (just lo per default) is trusted:
 

 $iptables -A INPUT -i $iface -j ACCEPT


 

 

3
 
$rc_a is sourced as a shell script, or, in case $rc_a is a directory, all files matching $rc_a/*.rc are sourced as shell scripts
 

4
 
ESTABLISHED and RELATED packets are ACCEPT-ed:
 

 $iptables -A INPUT -m conntrack --ctstate ESTABLISHED,RELATED \
  -j ACCEPT


 

 

5
 
$rc_b is sourced
 

6
 
$interfaces gets protected against spoofing: we don't allow anyone to spoof non-routeable addresses. We block outgoing packets that don't have our address as source: they are either spoofed or something is misconfigured (NAT disabled, for instance). We want to be nice and don't send out garbage.
 

 $iptables -A INPUT -i $iface --source $no_route_ip \
  -j DROP


 
We drop all incoming packets which don't have us as destination:
 

 $iptables -A OUTPUT -o $iface --source ! "$ip" \
  -j DROP


 
And we always allow outgoing connections:
 

 $iptables -A OUTPUT -m conntrack --ctstate NEW -o $iface \
  -j ACCEPT


 

 

7
 
$rc_c is sourced
 

8
 
Allow traffic to offered services, from trusted sources:
 

 $iptables -A INPUT -m conntrack --ctstate NEW \
  -i $iface --protocol $proto --source "$source" \
  --destination "$ip" --destination-port "$port" \
  -j ACCEPT


 

 

9
 
$rc_d is sourced
 

10
 
Don't answer broadcast and multicast packets:
 

 $iptables -A INPUT -i $iface --destination "$bcast" \
  -j DROP


 

 

11
 
$rc_f is sourced
 

12
 
Explicitly allow a subset of the ICMP types. (We disallow all other traffic later.)
 

 $iptables -A INPUT --protocol icmp --icmp-type $type \
  -j ACCEPT


 

 

13
 
$rc_g is sourced
 

14
 
Log packets (which make it till here)
 

 $iptables -A INPUT -j LOG --log-level debug \
  --log-prefix 'iptables: '


 

 

15
 
$rc_h is sourced
 

16
 
Reject all other packets
 

 $iptables -A INPUT -j REJECT


 

 

17
 
$rc_i is sourced

USING uruk-save AS THE INITSCRIPT BACKEND


By default, uruk-save is not used by the uruk init script. You might want to use it, though. The uruk-save script is faster and when using uruk-save, your box won't be open while loading new rules. But beware: uruk-save is not as robust as using uruk itself.
 
The script urukctl (and thus the uruk init script) will use uruk-save only if asked to do so in /etc/default/uruk (or /etc/sysconfig/uruk). If this file features
 

enable_uruk_save=true


 
uruk-save is used whenever appropriate. See uruk-save(8) for more details.

DEFAULT POLICY


By default, uruk drops packets which have unknown RFC 1918 private network addresses in their source or destination.
 
It rejects packets with source nor destination for one of our IPs.
 
Packets belonging to locally initiated sessions are allowed: we match state; the local host can act as a client for any remote service.
 
By default, uruk drops all ICMP packets (except those for interfaces in $interfaces_unprotect) with type other than
 
 

 
address-mask-reply
 

 
address-mask-request
 

 
destination-unreachable (this is a catch-all for a lot of types)
 

 
echo-request
 

 
echo-reply
 

 
parameter-problem (catch-all for ip-header-bad and required-option-missing)
 

 
timestamp-reply
 

 
timestamp-request
 

 
ttl-zero-during-transit
 

 
ttl-zero-during-reassembly
 
By default, the FORWARD chain is left untouched, so has policy ACCEPT. (This won't do much harm, since packet forwarding is disabled by default in the Linux kernel. However, if you don't mind being paranoid, you might want to add a
 

 iptables --policy FORWARD REJECT


 
to your $rc_a uruk hook. See uruk-rc(5).)
 
By default, uruk logs all UDP and TCP packets which are blocked by the user defined policies. Loglevel is debug, logprefix is "iptables:". See also the notes on loglevel in uruk-rc(5).
 
Blocked TCP packets are answered with a tcp-reset.

WARNING


In order to keep the uruk script small and simple, the script does very little error handling. It does not check the contents of the rc file in any way before executing it. When your rc file contains bogus stuff, uruk will very likely behave in unexpected ways. Caveat emptor.

ENVIRONMENT


You can override some defaults in the shell before executing the uruk script. uruk honors the following variables:
 
 

 
"URUK_CONFIG" Full pathname of rc file; /etc/uruk/rc by default.
 

 
"URUK_IPTABLES" Full pathname of iptables executable. /sbin/iptables by default. Overrides iptables.
 

 
"URUK_IP6TABLES" Full pathname of ip6tables executable, for IPv6 support. Overrides ip6tables.
 

 
"URUK_INTERFACES_UNPROTECT" Default list of unprotected interfaces. Overrides interfaces_unprotect. The default default is lo.

SEE ALSO


uruk-rc(5), uruk-save(8). The Uruk homepage is at http://mdcc.cx/uruk/ .
 
iptables(8), iptables-save(8), iptables-restore(8), ip6tables(8), ip6tables-save(8), ip6tables-restore(8), http://www.netfilter.org/
 
interfaces(5), http://packages.debian.org/ifupdown.
Copyright (C) 2003 Stichting LogReport Foundation logreport@logreport.org; Copyright (C) 2003, 2004 Tilburg University http://www.uvt.nl/; Copyright (C) 2003-2013 Joost van Baal-Ilić <joostvb-uruk@mdcc.cx>
 
This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
 
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details.
 
You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. If not, see http://www.gnu.org/licenses/.

AUTHOR


Joost van Baal-Ilić <joostvb-uruk@mdcc.cx>
9 авг 2013 uruk 20130809