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Config::Model::Value - Strongly typed configuration value

Config::Model::Value(3pm) User Contributed Perl Documentation Config::Model::Value(3pm)

NAME

Config::Model::Value - Strongly typed configuration value

VERSION

version 2.113

SYNOPSIS

 use Config::Model;
 # define configuration tree object
 my $model = Config::Model->new;
 $model ->create_config_class (
    name => "MyClass",
    element => [
        [qw/foo bar/] => {
            type           => 'leaf',
            value_type => 'string',
            description => 'foobar',
        }
        ,
        country => {
            type =>               'leaf',
            value_type => 'enum',
            choice =>      [qw/France US/],
            description => 'big countries',
        }
    ,
    ],
 ) ;
 my $inst = $model->instance(root_class_name => 'MyClass' );
 my $root = $inst->config_root ;
 # put data
 $root->load( steps => 'foo=FOO country=US' );
 print $root->report ;
 #  foo = FOO
 #                DESCRIPTION: foobar
 #
 #  country = US
 #                DESCRIPTION: big countries

DESCRIPTION

This class provides a way to specify configuration value with the following properties:
Strongly typed scalar: the value can either be an enumerated type, a boolean, a number, an integer or a string
default parameter: a value can have a default value specified during the construction. This default value is written in the target configuration file. ("default" parameter)
upstream default parameter: specifies a default value that is used by the application when no information is provided in the configuration file. This upstream_default value is not written in the configuration files. Only the "fetch_standard" method returns the builtin value. This parameter was previously referred as "built_in" value. This may be used for audit purpose. ("upstream_default" parameter)
mandatory value: reading a mandatory value raises an exception if the value is not specified and has no default value.
dynamic change of property: A slave value can be registered to another master value so that the properties of the slave value can change according to the value of the master value. For instance, paper size value can be 'letter' for country 'US' and 'A4' for country 'France'.
A reference to the Id of a hash of list element. In other word, the value is an enumerated type where the possible values (choice) is defined by the existing keys of a has element somewhere in the tree. See "Value Reference".

Default values

There are several kind of default values. They depend on where these values are defined (or found).
From the lowest default level to the "highest":
"upstream_default": The value is known in the application, but is not written in the configuration file.
"layered": The value is known by the application through another mean (e.g. an included configuration file), but is not written in the configuration file.
"default": The value is known by the model, but not by the application. This value must be written in the configuration file.
"computed": The value is computed from other configuration elements. This value must be written in the configuration file.
"preset": The value is not known by the model or by the application. But it can be found by an automatic program and stored while the configuration Config::Model::Instance is in preset mode
Then there is the value entered by the user. This overrides all kind of "default" value.
The fetch_standard function returns the "highest" level of default value, but does not return a custom value, i.e. a value entered by the user.

Constructor

Value object should not be created directly.

Value model declaration

A leaf element must be declared with the following parameters:
value_type
Either "boolean", "enum", "integer", "number", "uniline", "string", "file", "dir". Mandatory. See "Value types".
default
Specify the default value (optional)
upstream_default
Specify a built in default value (optional). I.e a value known by the application which does not need to be written in the configuration file.
write_as
Array ref. Reserved for boolean value. Specify how to write a boolean value. Default is "[0,1]" which may not be the most readable. "write_as" can be specified as "['false','true']" or "['no','yes']".
compute
Computes a value according to a formula and other values. By default a computed value cannot be set. See Config::Model::ValueComputer for computed value declaration.
migrate_from
This is a special parameter to cater for smooth configuration upgrade. This parameter can be used to copy the value of a deprecated parameter to its replacement. See "Upgrade" for details.
convert => [uc | lc ]
When stored, the value is converted to uppercase (uc) or lowercase (lc).
min
Specify the minimum value (optional, only for integer, number)
max
Specify the maximum value (optional, only for integer, number)
mandatory
Set to 1 if the configuration value must be set by the configuration user (default: 0)
choice
Array ref of the possible value of an enum. Example :
 
 choice => [ qw/foo bar/]
    
match
Perl regular expression. The value is matched with the regex to assert its validity. Example "match => '^foo'" means that the parameter value must begin with "foo". Valid only for "string" or "uniline" values.
warn_if_match
Hash ref. Keys are made of Perl regular expression. The value can specify a warning message (leave empty or undefined for a default warning message) and instructions to fix the value. A warning is issued when the value matches the passed regular expression. Valid only for "string" or "uniline" values. The fix instructions is evaluated when apply_fixes is called. $_ contains the value to fix. $_ is stored as the new value once the instructions are done. $self contains the value object. Use with care.
 
In the example below, any value matching 'foo' is converted in uppercase:
 
 warn_if_match => {
   'foo' => {
        fix => 'uc;',
        msg =>  'value $_ contains foo'
   },
   'BAR' => {
        fix =>'lc;',
        msg =>  'value $_ contains BAR'
   }
 },
    
 
The tests are done in alphabetical order. In the example above, "BAR" test is done before "foo" test.
 
$_ is substituted with the bad value when the message is generated. $std_value is substituted with the standard value (i.e the preset, computed or default value).
warn_unless_match
Hash ref like above. A warning is issued when the value does not match the passed regular expression. Valid only for "string" or "uniline" values.
warn
String. Issue a warning to user with the specified string any time a value is set or read.
warn_if
A bit like "warn_if_match". The hash key is not a regexp but a label to help users. The hash ref contains some Perl code that is evaluated to perform the test. A warning is issued if the given code returns true.
 
$_ contains the value to check. $self contains the "Config::Model::Value" object (use with care).
 
The example below warns if value contaims a number:
 
 warn_if => {
    warn_test => {
        code => 'defined $_ && /\d/;',
        msg  => 'value $_ should not have numbers',
        fix  => 's/\d//g;'
    }
 },
    
 
Any operation or check on file must be done with "file" sub (otherwise tests will break). This sub returns a Path::Tiny object that can be used to perform checks. For instance:
 
  warn_if => {
     warn_test => {
         code => 'not file($_)->exists',
         msg  => 'file $_ should exist'
     }
    
warn_unless
Like "warn_if", but issue a warning when the given "code" returns false.
 
The example below warns unless the value points to an existing directory:
 
 warn_unless => {
     'dir' => {
          code => '-d',
          msg => 'missing dir',
          fix => "system(mkdir $_);" }
 }
    
assert
Like "warn_if". Except that returned value triggers an error when the given code returns false:
 
 assert => {
    test_nb => {
        code => 'defined $_ && /\d/;',
        msg  => 'should not have numbers',
        fix  => 's/\d//g;'
    }
 },
    
grammar
Setup a Parse::RecDescent grammar to perform validation.
 
If the grammar does not start with a "check" rule (i.e does not start with "check: "), the first line of the grammar is modified to add "check" rule and this rules is set up so the entire value must match the passed grammar.
 
I.e. the grammar:
 
 token (oper token)(s?)
 oper: 'and' | 'or'
 token: 'Apache' | 'CC-BY' | 'Perl'
    
 
is changed to
 
 check: token (oper token)(s?) /^\Z/ {$return = 1;}
 oper: 'and' | 'or'
 token: 'Apache' | 'CC-BY' | 'Perl'
    
 
The rule is called with Value object and a string reference. So, in the actions you may need to define, you can call the value object as $arg[0], store error message in "${$arg[1]}}" and store warnings in "${$arg[2]}}".
replace
Hash ref. Used for enum to substitute one value with another. This parameter must be used to enable user to upgrade a configuration with obsolete values. For instance, if the value "foo" is obsolete and replaced by "foo_better", you must declare:
 
 replace => { foo => 'foo_better' }
    
 
The hash key can also be a regular expression for wider range replacement. The regexp must match the whole value:
 
 replace => ( 'foo.*' => 'better_foo' }
    
 
In this case, a value is replaced by "better_foo" when the "/^foo.*$/" regexp matches.
replace_follow
Path specifying a hash of value element in the configuration tree. The hash if used in a way similar to the "replace" parameter. In this case, the replacement is not coded in the model but specified by the configuration.
refer_to
Specify a path to an id element used as a reference. See Value Reference for details.
computed_refer_to
Specify a path to an id element used as a computed reference. See "Value Reference" for details.
warp
See section below: "Warp: dynamic value configuration".
help
You may provide detailed description on possible values with a hash ref. Example:
 
help => { oui => "French for 'yes'", non => "French for 'no'"}

Value types

This modules can check several value types:
"boolean"
Accepts values 1 or 0, "yes" or "no", "true" or "false", and empty string. The value read back is always 1 or 0.
"enum"
Enum choices must be specified by the "choice" parameter.
"integer"
Enable positive or negative integer
"number"
The value can be a decimal number
"uniline"
A one line string. I.e without "\n" in it.
"string"
Actually, no check is performed with this type.
"reference"
Like an "enum" where the possible values (aka choice) is defined by another location if the configuration tree. See "Value Reference".
"file"
A file name or path. A warning is issued if the file does not exists (or is a directory)
"dir"
A directory name or path. A warning is issued if the directory does not exists (or is a plain file)

Warp: dynamic value configuration

The Warp functionality enable a "Value" object to change its properties (i.e. default value or its type) dynamically according to the value of another "Value" object locate elsewhere in the configuration tree. (See Config::Model::Warper for an explanation on warp mechanism).
For instance if you declare 2 "Value" element this way:
 $model ->create_config_class (
     name => "TV_config_class",
     element => [
         country => {
             type => 'leaf',
             value_type => 'enum',
             choice => [qw/US Europe Japan/]
         } ,
         tv_standard => { # this example is getting old...
             type => 'leaf',
             value_type => 'enum',
             choice => [ qw/PAL NTSC SECAM/ ]
             warp => {
                 follow => {
                     # this points to the warp master
                     c => '- country'
                 },
                 rules => {
                     '$c eq "US"' => {
                          default => 'NTSC'
                      },
                     '$c eq "France"' => {
                          default => 'SECAM'
                      },
                     '$c eq "Japan"' => {
                          default => 'NTSC'
                      },
                     '$c eq "Europe"' => {
                          default => 'PAL'
                     },
                 }
             }
         } ,
     ]
 );
Setting "country" element to "US" means that "tv_standard" has a default value set to "NTSC" by the warp mechanism.
Likewise, the warp mechanism enables you to dynamically change the possible values of an enum element:
 state => {
     type => 'leaf',
     value_type => 'enum', # example is admittedly silly
     warp => {
         follow => {
             c => '- country'
         },
         rules => {
             '$c eq "US"'        => {
                  choice => ['Kansas', 'Texas' ]
              },
             '$c eq "Europe"' => {
                  choice => ['France', 'Spain' ]
             },
             '$c eq "Japan"' => {
                  choice => ['Honshu', 'Hokkaido' ]
             }
         }
     }
 }

Cascaded warping

Warping value can be cascaded: "A" can be warped by "B" which can be warped by "C". But this feature should be avoided since it can lead to a model very hard to debug. Bear in mind that:
Warp loops are not detected and end up in "deep recursion subroutine" failures.
avoid "diamond" shaped warp dependencies: the results depends on the order of the warp algorithm which can be unpredictable in this case
The keys declared in the warp rules ("US", "Europe" and "Japan" in the example above) cannot be checked at start time against the warp master "Value". So a wrong warp rule key is silently ignored during start up and fails at run time.

Value Reference

To set up an enumerated value where the possible choice depends on the key of a Config::Model::AnyId object, you must:
Set "value_type" to "reference".
Specify the "refer_to" or "computed_refer_to" parameter. See refer_to parameter.
In this case, a "IdElementReference" object is created to handle the relation between this value object and the referred Id. See Config::Model::IdElementReference for details.

Introspection methods

The following methods returns the current value of the parameter of the value object (as declared in the model unless they were warped):
min
max
mandatory
choice
convert
value_type
default
upstream_default
index_value
element_name

name()

Returns the object name.

get_type

Returns "leaf".

can_store()

Returns true if the value object can be assigned to. Return 0 for a read-only value (i.e. a computed value with no override allowed).

get_choice()

Query legal values (only for enum types). Return an array (possibly empty).

get_help ( [ on_value ] )

Returns the help strings passed to the constructor.
With "on_value" parameter, returns the help string dedicated to the passed value or undef.
Without parameter returns a hash ref that contains all the help strings.

error_msg

Returns the error messages of this object (if any)

warning_msg

Returns warning concerning this value. Returns a list in list context and a string in scalar context.

check_value ( value )

Check the consistency of the value.
"check_value" also accepts named parameters:
value
quiet
When non null, check does not try to get extra information from the tree. This is required in some cases to avoid loops in check, get_info, get_warp_info, re-check ...
In scalar context, return 0 or 1.
In array context, return an empty array when no error was found. In case of errors, returns an array of error strings that should be shown to the user.

has_fixes

Returns the number of fixes that can be applied to the current value.

apply_fixes

Applies the fixes to suppress the current warnings.

check( [ value => foo ] )

Like "check_value".
Also displays warnings on STDOUT unless "silent" parameter is set to 1. In this case,user is expected to retrieve them with "warning_msg".
Without "value" argument, this method checks the value currently stored.

Information management

store( $value )

Can be called as "value => ..., check => yes|no|skip ), silent => 0|1"
Store value in leaf element. "check" parameter can be used to skip validation check (default ies 'yes'). "silent" cane be used to suppress warnings.
Optional "callback" is now deprecated.

clear

Clear the stored value. Further read returns the default value (or computed or migrated value).

load_data( $value )

Load scalar data. Data is forwarded to "store( $value )".
Called with "load_data( $value )" or "load_data( data =" $value )> or with the same parameters are "store" method.

fetch_custom

Returns the stored value if this value is different from a standard setting or built in setting. In other words, returns undef if the stored value is identical to the default value or the computed value or the built in value.

fetch_standard

Returns the standard value as defined by the configuration model. The standard value can be either a preset value, a layered value, a computed value, a default value or a built-in default value.

has_data

Return true if the value contains information different from default or upstream default value.

fetch(...)

Check and fetch value from leaf element. The method can have one parameter (the fetch mode) or several pairs:
mode
Whether to fetch default, custom, etc value. See below for details
check
Whether to check if the value is valid or not before returning it. Default is 'yes'. Possible value are
yes
Perform check and raise an exception for bad values
skip
Perform check and return undef for bad values. A warning is issued when a bad value is skipped. Set "check" to "no" to avoid warnings.
no
Do not check and return values even if bad
silent
When set to 1, warning are not displayed on STDOUT. User is expected to read warnings with warning_msg method.
According to the "mode" parameter, this method returns either:
empty mode parameter (default)
Value entered by user or default value if the value is different from upstream_default or layered value. Typically this value is written in a configuration file.
backend
Alias for default mode.
custom
The value entered by the user (if different from built in, preset, computed or default value)
user
The value most useful to user: the value that is used by the application.
preset
The value entered in preset mode
standard
The preset or computed or default or built in value.
default
The default value (defined by the configuration model)
layered
The value found in included files (treated in layered mode: values specified there are handled as upstream default values). E.g. like in multistrap config.
upstream_default
The upstream_default value. (defined by the configuration model)
non_upstream_default
The custom or preset or computed or default value. Returns undef if either of this value is identical to the upstream_default value. This feature is useful to reduce data to write in configuration file.
allow_undef
With this mode, "fetch()" returns undef for mandatory values. Normally, trying to fetch an undefined mandatory value leads to an exception.

user_value

Returns the value entered by the user. Does not use the default or computed value. Returns undef unless a value was actually stored.

fetch_preset

Returns the value entered in preset mode. Does not use the default or computed value. Returns undef unless a value was actually stored in preset mode.

clear_preset

Delete the preset value. (Even out of preset mode). Returns true if other data are still stored in the value (layered or user data). Returns false otherwise.

fetch_layered

Returns the value entered in layered mode. Does not use the default or computed value. Returns undef unless a value was actually stored in layered mode.

clear_layered

Delete the layered value. (Even out of layered mode). Returns true if other data are still stored in the value (layered or user data). Returns false otherwise.

get( path => ..., mode => ... , check => ... )

Get a value from a directory like path.

set( path , value )

Set a value from a directory like path.

Examples

Number with min and max values

 bounded_number => {
    type       => 'leaf',
    value_type => 'number',
    min        => 1,
    max        => 4,
 },

Mandatory value

 mandatory_string => {
    type       => 'leaf',
    value_type => 'string',
    mandatory  => 1,
 },
 mandatory_boolean => {
    type       => 'leaf',
    value_type => 'boolean',
    mandatory  => 1,
 },

Enum with help associated with each value

Note that the help specification is optional.
 enum_with_help => {
    type       => 'leaf',
    value_type => 'enum',
    choice     => [qw/a b c/],
    help       => {
        a => 'a help'
    }
 },

Migrate old obsolete enum value

Legacy values "a1", "c1" and "foo/.*" are replaced with "a", "c" and "foo/".
 with_replace => {
    type       => 'leaf',
    value_type => 'enum',
    choice     => [qw/a b c/],
    replace    => {
        a1       => 'a',
        c1       => 'c',
        'foo/.*' => 'foo',
    },
 },

Enforce value to match a regexp

An exception is triggered when the value does not match the "match" regular expression.
 match => {
    type       => 'leaf',
    value_type => 'string',
    match      => '^foo\d{2}$',
 },

Enforce value to match a Parse::RecDescent grammar

 match_with_parse_recdescent => {
    type       => 'leaf',
    value_type => 'string',
    grammar    => q{
        token (oper token)(s?)
        oper: 'and' | 'or'
        token: 'Apache' | 'CC-BY' | 'Perl'
    },
 },

Issue a warning if a value matches a regexp

Issue a warning if the string contains upper case letters. Propose a fix that translate all capital letters to lower case.
 warn_if_capital => {
    type          => 'leaf',
    value_type    => 'string',
    warn_if_match => {
        '/A-Z/' => {
            fix => '$_ = lc;'
        }
    },
 },
A specific warning can be specified:
 warn_if_capital => {
    type          => 'leaf',
    value_type    => 'string',
    warn_if_match => {
        '/A-Z/' => {
            fix  => '$_ = lc;',
            mesg => 'NO UPPER CASE PLEASE'
        }
    },
 },

Issue a warning if a value does NOT match a regexp

 warn_unless => {
    type              => 'leaf',
    value_type        => 'string',
    warn_unless_match => {
        foo => {
            msg => '',
            fix => '$_ = "foo".$_;'
        }
    },
 },

Always issue a warning

 always_warn => {
    type       => 'leaf',
    value_type => 'string',
    warn       => 'Always warn whenever used',
 },

Computed values

See "Examples" in Config::Model::ValueComputer.

Upgrade

Upgrade is a special case when the configuration of an application has changed. Some parameters can be removed and replaced by another one. To avoid trouble on the application user side, Config::Model offers a possibility to handle the migration of configuration data through a special declaration in the configuration model.
This declaration must:
Declare the deprecated parameter with a "status" set to "deprecated"
Declare the new parameter with the instructions to load the semantic content from the deprecated parameter. These instructions are declared in the "migrate_from" parameters (which is similar to the "compute" parameter)
Here an example where a URL parameter is changed to a set of 2 parameters (host and path):
 'old_url' => {
    type       => 'leaf',
    value_type => 'uniline',
    status     => 'deprecated',
 },
 'host' => {
    type       => 'leaf',
    value_type => 'uniline',
    # the formula must end with '$1' so the result of the capture is used
    # as the host value
    migrate_from => {
        formula   => '$old =~ m!http://([\w\.]+)!; $1 ;',
        variables => {
             old => '- old_url'
        },
        use_eval  => 1,
    },
 },
 'path' => {
    type         => 'leaf',
    value_type   => 'uniline',
    migrate_from => {
        formula   => '$old =~ m!http://[\w\.]+(/.*)!; $1 ;',
        variables => {
             old => '- old_url'
        },
        use_eval  => 1,
    },
 },

EXCEPTION HANDLING

When an error is encountered, this module may throw the following exceptions:
Config::Model::Exception::Model Config::Model::Exception::Formula Config::Model::Exception::WrongValue Config::Model::Exception::WarpError
See Config::Model::Exception for more details.

AUTHOR

Dominique Dumont, (ddumont at cpan dot org)

SEE ALSO

Config::Model, Config::Model::Node, Config::Model::AnyId, Config::Model::Warper, Config::Model::Exception Config::Model::ValueComputer,

AUTHOR

Dominique Dumont This software is Copyright (c) 2005-2017 by Dominique Dumont.
This is free software, licensed under:
  The GNU Lesser General Public License, Version 2.1, February 1999
2017-10-13 perl v5.26.0